Retroviral integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of viral cDNA into a host chromosome. Additional roles have been suggested for IN, including uncoating, reverse transcription, and nuclear import of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Here, using a yeast two-hybrid system, we identified a survival motor neuron (SMN)-interacting protein 1 (Gemin2) that binds to HIV-1 IN. Reduction of Gemin2 with small interfering RNA duplexes (siGemin2) dramatically reduced HIV-1 infection in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages and also reduced viral cDNA synthesis. In contrast, siGemin2 did not affect HIV-1 expression from the integrated proviral DNA. Although Gemin2 was undetectable in cell-free viral particles, coimmunoprecipitation experiments using FLAG-tagged Gemin2 strongly suggested that Gemin2 interacts with the incoming viral genome through IN. Further experiments reducing SMN or other SMN-interacting proteins suggested that Gemin2 might act on HIV-1 either alone or with unknown proteins to facilitate efficient viral cDNA synthesis soon after infection. Thus, we provide the evidence for a novel host protein that binds to HIV-1 IN and facilitates viral cDNA synthesis and subsequent steps that precede integration in vivo.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science