Treatment for lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSCS) is mainly classified into conservative and surgical therapies. Among conservative therapies, pharmacological treatment is commonly prescribed for LSCS. Meanwhile, surgical treatment is the last option for LSCS. This study aimed to examine the impact of lumbar surgery on pharmacological treatment for patients with LSCS. Consecutive patients aged ≥ 40 years who underwent lumbar surgery for LSCS were identified. A total of 142 patients were retrospectively reviewed for preoperative and 6-month and 1-year postoperative LSCS medications. The results showed that the number of LSCS medications significantly decreased after lumbar surgery. The proportion of the patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, pregabalin/mirogabalin, opioids, prostaglandin E1 analogs, and neurotropin was significantly decreased after lumbar surgery, but that of the patients taking mecobalamin, acetaminophen, and serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors was not significantly changed. Additionally, around 15% of the participants showed an increase in LSCS medications even after lumbar surgery. Multivariable analysis revealed that individuals without improvements in walking ability (RR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3–5.9) or social life (RR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1–5.0) had a greater risk of a postoperative increase in LSCS medications. The study results may provide physicians with beneficial information on treatment for LSCS.
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