Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to identify the potential predictors to assess the impact of maintenance therapy after induction immunochemotherapy in the real-world setting of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: We retrospectively identified 152 patients with advanced NSCLC who received immunochemotherapy at 8 hospitals in Japan between January 2019 and December 2019. Patients who received at least four cycles of induction immunochemotherapy and one cycle of maintenance therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors were included. We investigated the biomarkers for progression-free survival (PFS) for maintenance therapy after induction immunochemotherapy. Results: Out of the 92 patients with advanced NSCLC included in the study, 42 received maintenance therapy with cytotoxic agents, whereas 50 received maintenance therapy without cytotoxic agents. Among those who received maintenance therapy without cytotoxic agents, responders to prior immunochemotherapy had significantly longer PFS than non-responders (p = 0.004), except those with maintenance therapy with cytotoxic agents. In non-responders to prior immunochemotherapy, patients with maintenance therapy with cytotoxic agents had significantly longer PFS than those with maintenance therapy without cytotoxic agents (log-rank p = 0.007), whereas, among responders to prior immunochemotherapy, there was no significant difference in PFS for different maintenance regimens (log-rank p = 0.31). Conclusions: This retrospective study showed that response to prior immunochemotherapy was associated with clinical outcomes among patients with advanced NSCLC who received maintenance therapy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research