Aim: Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who require both oral anticoagulant (OAC) and antiplatelet therapy (APT) are exposed to a serious risk of bleeding. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship among nutritional and inflammation status and long-term bleeding in patients requiring both OACs and APT after PCI. Methods: We performed PCI in 3,718 consecutive patients between April 2011 and March 2017, 302 of whom were treated with both OACs and APT. Patients were followed for up to 3 years for bleeding events, defined as the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) class ≥ 3 bleeding. We retrospectively evaluated the ability of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) to detect bleeding events. Results: During a median follow-up of 1,080 days, bleeding events were observed in 53 (17.5%) patients. Bleeding events were associated with a low GNRI (≤ 98) (hazard ratio [HR], 3.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84 – 5.45; p＜0.0001) and hs-CRP level ≥ 2.5 mg/L (HR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.61 – 4.78; p=0.0003). A low GNRI＋ high hs-CRP showed a 5.12-fold increase in the incidence of BARC class ≥ 3 bleeding (95% CI, 2.68 – 9.91; p＜ 0.0001) compared with a normal GNRI＋low hs-CRP. The addition of the GNRI and hs-CRP to the PRECISE-DAPT score improved C-statistics from 0.67 to 0.71 and enhanced the net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) (NRI, 0.36, p＜0.0001; IDI, 0.066, p＜0.0001). Conclusions: The GNRI and hs-CRP were novel predictors of the long-term bleeding risk in patients requiring both OACs and APT after PCI.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Biochemistry, medical