Background: The impact of pancreas transplantation, including kidney transplantation on patients’ life prognoses, is unclear in Japan. An analysis of the data of the Japan Pancreas Transplant Registry was performed to compare the patient survival between on the waiting list and after pancreas transplantation, and investigate the factors that affect the patient survival after pancreatic transplantation. Methods: The life prognoses of 361 patients who underwent pancreas transplantation from 2000 to December 2018 were examined. Results: The survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years on the waiting list were 98.4%, 90.3%, and 78.1%, respectively, while those after transplantation were significantly improved (p = 0.029) at 100%, 97.5%, and 88.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the survival rates of patients waiting for simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) at 1, 5, and 10 years were 98.2%, 89.4%, and 75.4%, respectively, while those after SPK were also significantly improved (p = 0.026) at 100%, 94.6%, and 88.8%. The multivariable analysis revealed that the duration of diabetes before surgery was the only independent risk factor (hazard ratio = 1.095, p = 0.012) that affected the patient survival after SPK. Conclusion: Pancreas transplantation was found to improve the life prognosis of patients with type 1 diabetes, especially those with end-stage renal failure waiting for SPK.
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