Limited information is provided by angiography on plaque morphology and composition before balloon angioplasty. Identification of plaques associated with reduced lumen gain or a high complication rate may provide the rationale for using alternative revascularization devices. We studied 60 patients with quantitative angiography and intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS) before and after balloon dilation. Angiography was used to measure transient wall stretch and elastic recoil. ICUS was used to investigate the mechanisms of lumen enlargement among different plaque compositions and in the presence of a disease-free wall (minimal thickness ≤0.6 mm). Compared with ultrasound, angiography underestimated the presence of vessel calcification (13% vs 78%), lumen eccentricity (35% vs 62%), and wall dissection (32% vs 57%). ICUS measurements showed that balloon angioplasty increased lumen area from 1.82 ± 0.51 to 4.81 ± 1.43 mm2. Lumen enlargement was the result of the combined effect of an increase in the total cross-sectional area of the vessel (wall stretching, 43%) and of a reduction in the area occupied by the plaque (plaque compression or redistribution, 57%). Vessels with a disease- free wall had smaller lumen gain than other types of vessels (2.13 ± 1.26 vs 3.59 ± 1.51 mm2, respectively, p <0.01). Wall stretching was the most important mechanism of lumen enlargement in vessels with a disease-free wall (79% vs 37% in the other vessels). Angiography revealed a direct correlation between temporary stretch and elastic recoil that was responsible for 26% of the lass of the potential lumen gain. Thus, lumen enlargement after balloon angioplasty is the combined result of wall stretch and plaque compression or redistribution. ICUS indicates that vessels with o remnant arc of disease- free wall are dilated mainly by wall stretching compared with other types of vessels and are associated with a smaller lumen gain.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine