Introduction: We aimed to perform a multi-institutional study using a national database led by the Japanese Society of Endourology to investigate the effect of surgeon or hospital volume on the safety of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Materials and Methods: Clinical data of 3,214 patients who underwent RARP for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer between April 2012 and March 2013 in Japan were evaluated. Surgical outcomes and all intra-A nd perioperative complications were collected. Results: The intraoperative complication rate was 0.56%. In a total number of 241 patients, 261 perioperative complications were observed. The following percentages of patients presented the Clavien-graded complications: 7.2%, grades 1-2; 0.84%, grade 3; and 0.093%, grade 4a. No cases of multiple organ dysfunction or death (grades 4b and 5) were found. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the hospital volume (OR 3.6; p = 0.010) for intraoperative complications and surgeon volume (OR 0.19; p < 0.0001) and extended lymph node discectomy (OR 3.9; p < 0.0001) for perioperative complications were significant independent risk factors. Conclusions: Hospital volume for intraoperative complications and surgeon volume and extended lymph node dissection for perioperative complications were significantly associated with increased risk of each complication in RARP.
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