Purpose: The aims of this study were to reveal how using the antibiotics recommended by the 2010 Surgical Infection Society (SIS) and Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines can affect the therapeutic outcomes. Methods: We reviewed the cases of 53 patients with a postoperative intra-abdominal abscess without anastomotic leakage after gastrointestinal surgery who underwent image-guided percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) and concomitant antibiotic therapy. The type of antibiotic initially administered was determined based on the surgeon’s judgment. A persistent abscess was defined as one or more PAD procedures resulting in complete resolution after 21 or more days. The recommended antibiotics were defined according to 2010 SIS/IDSA guidelines. Results: All 53 patients had complete resolution without the need for surgery. The results of a multivariable analysis revealed that a C-reactive protein level ≥12 mg/dL and non-recommended antibiotics were significant risk factors for a persistent abscess (P = 0.042 and 0.013, respectively). With regard to a fever lasting more than 48 h, there was a significant difference between the recommended (45.1 %) and non-recommended (72.7 %) antibiotic groups (P = 0.046). Conclusions: Using the recommended antibiotics may shorten the time to defervescence and reduce the risk of a persistent abscess in patients undergoing PAD for a postoperative abscess after gastrointestinal surgery.
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