In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) soft x-ray spectrometer

Maurice A. Leutenegger, Marc Audard, Kevin R. Boyce, Gregory V. Brown, Meng P. Chiao, Megan E. Eckart, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Akihiro Furuzawa, Matteo Guainazzi, Daniel Haas, Takayuki Hayashi, Jan Willem Den Herder, Ryo Iizuka, Manabu Ishida, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Naomichi Kikuchi, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Shu Koyama, Sho Kurashima, Yoshitomo MaedaMaxim Markevitch, Dan Mccammon, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Hideyuki Mori, Nozomi Nakaniwa, Takashi Okajima, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, F. Scott Porter, Kosuke Sato, Toshiki Sato, Makoto Sawada, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Gary Sneiderman, Yang Soong, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew E. Szymkowiak, Yoh Takei, Makoto Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Cor P. De Vries, Tomomi Watanabe, Shinya Yamada, Noriko Yamasaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Soft X-ray Spectrometer onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-To 12-keV band. Extensive preflight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsar wind nebulae to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate-valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab nebula to refine the pixel-To-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.

Original languageEnglish
Article number021407
JournalJournal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems
Volume4
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-04-2018

Fingerprint

x ray spectrometers
Spectrometers
pixel
spectrometer
Pixels
flight
Calibration
calibration
X rays
pixels
energy
Telescopes
pulse amplitude
Detectors
Dewars
x rays
X ray spectrometers
Level measurement
time measurement
Thermistors

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Leutenegger, Maurice A. ; Audard, Marc ; Boyce, Kevin R. ; Brown, Gregory V. ; Chiao, Meng P. ; Eckart, Megan E. ; Fujimoto, Ryuichi ; Furuzawa, Akihiro ; Guainazzi, Matteo ; Haas, Daniel ; Hayashi, Takayuki ; Den Herder, Jan Willem ; Iizuka, Ryo ; Ishida, Manabu ; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka ; Kikuchi, Naomichi ; Kilbourne, Caroline A. ; Koyama, Shu ; Kurashima, Sho ; Maeda, Yoshitomo ; Markevitch, Maxim ; Mccammon, Dan ; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa ; Mori, Hideyuki ; Nakaniwa, Nozomi ; Okajima, Takashi ; Paltani, Stéphane ; Petre, Robert ; Porter, F. Scott ; Sato, Kosuke ; Sato, Toshiki ; Sawada, Makoto ; Serlemitsos, Peter J. ; Seta, Hiromi ; Sneiderman, Gary ; Soong, Yang ; Sugita, Satoshi ; Szymkowiak, Andrew E. ; Takei, Yoh ; Tashiro, Makoto ; Tawara, Yuzuru ; Tsujimoto, Masahiro ; De Vries, Cor P. ; Watanabe, Tomomi ; Yamada, Shinya ; Yamasaki, Noriko. / In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) soft x-ray spectrometer. In: Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems. 2018 ; Vol. 4, No. 2.
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abstract = "The Soft X-ray Spectrometer onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-To 12-keV band. Extensive preflight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsar wind nebulae to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate-valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab nebula to refine the pixel-To-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.",
author = "Leutenegger, {Maurice A.} and Marc Audard and Boyce, {Kevin R.} and Brown, {Gregory V.} and Chiao, {Meng P.} and Eckart, {Megan E.} and Ryuichi Fujimoto and Akihiro Furuzawa and Matteo Guainazzi and Daniel Haas and Takayuki Hayashi and {Den Herder}, {Jan Willem} and Ryo Iizuka and Manabu Ishida and Yoshitaka Ishisaki and Naomichi Kikuchi and Kilbourne, {Caroline A.} and Shu Koyama and Sho Kurashima and Yoshitomo Maeda and Maxim Markevitch and Dan Mccammon and Kazuhisa Mitsuda and Hideyuki Mori and Nozomi Nakaniwa and Takashi Okajima and St{\'e}phane Paltani and Robert Petre and Porter, {F. Scott} and Kosuke Sato and Toshiki Sato and Makoto Sawada and Serlemitsos, {Peter J.} and Hiromi Seta and Gary Sneiderman and Yang Soong and Satoshi Sugita and Szymkowiak, {Andrew E.} and Yoh Takei and Makoto Tashiro and Yuzuru Tawara and Masahiro Tsujimoto and {De Vries}, {Cor P.} and Tomomi Watanabe and Shinya Yamada and Noriko Yamasaki",
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Leutenegger, MA, Audard, M, Boyce, KR, Brown, GV, Chiao, MP, Eckart, ME, Fujimoto, R, Furuzawa, A, Guainazzi, M, Haas, D, Hayashi, T, Den Herder, JW, Iizuka, R, Ishida, M, Ishisaki, Y, Kikuchi, N, Kilbourne, CA, Koyama, S, Kurashima, S, Maeda, Y, Markevitch, M, Mccammon, D, Mitsuda, K, Mori, H, Nakaniwa, N, Okajima, T, Paltani, S, Petre, R, Porter, FS, Sato, K, Sato, T, Sawada, M, Serlemitsos, PJ, Seta, H, Sneiderman, G, Soong, Y, Sugita, S, Szymkowiak, AE, Takei, Y, Tashiro, M, Tawara, Y, Tsujimoto, M, De Vries, CP, Watanabe, T, Yamada, S & Yamasaki, N 2018, 'In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) soft x-ray spectrometer', Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, vol. 4, no. 2, 021407. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JATIS.4.2.021407

In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) soft x-ray spectrometer. / Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Audard, Marc; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haas, Daniel; Hayashi, Takayuki; Den Herder, Jan Willem; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Koyama, Shu; Kurashima, Sho; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Markevitch, Maxim; Mccammon, Dan; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mori, Hideyuki; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Okajima, Takashi; Paltani, Stéphane; Petre, Robert; Porter, F. Scott; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Toshiki; Sawada, Makoto; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Seta, Hiromi; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; De Vries, Cor P.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Yamada, Shinya; Yamasaki, Noriko.

In: Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, 021407, 01.04.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) soft x-ray spectrometer

AU - Leutenegger, Maurice A.

AU - Audard, Marc

AU - Boyce, Kevin R.

AU - Brown, Gregory V.

AU - Chiao, Meng P.

AU - Eckart, Megan E.

AU - Fujimoto, Ryuichi

AU - Furuzawa, Akihiro

AU - Guainazzi, Matteo

AU - Haas, Daniel

AU - Hayashi, Takayuki

AU - Den Herder, Jan Willem

AU - Iizuka, Ryo

AU - Ishida, Manabu

AU - Ishisaki, Yoshitaka

AU - Kikuchi, Naomichi

AU - Kilbourne, Caroline A.

AU - Koyama, Shu

AU - Kurashima, Sho

AU - Maeda, Yoshitomo

AU - Markevitch, Maxim

AU - Mccammon, Dan

AU - Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

AU - Mori, Hideyuki

AU - Nakaniwa, Nozomi

AU - Okajima, Takashi

AU - Paltani, Stéphane

AU - Petre, Robert

AU - Porter, F. Scott

AU - Sato, Kosuke

AU - Sato, Toshiki

AU - Sawada, Makoto

AU - Serlemitsos, Peter J.

AU - Seta, Hiromi

AU - Sneiderman, Gary

AU - Soong, Yang

AU - Sugita, Satoshi

AU - Szymkowiak, Andrew E.

AU - Takei, Yoh

AU - Tashiro, Makoto

AU - Tawara, Yuzuru

AU - Tsujimoto, Masahiro

AU - De Vries, Cor P.

AU - Watanabe, Tomomi

AU - Yamada, Shinya

AU - Yamasaki, Noriko

PY - 2018/4/1

Y1 - 2018/4/1

N2 - The Soft X-ray Spectrometer onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-To 12-keV band. Extensive preflight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsar wind nebulae to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate-valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab nebula to refine the pixel-To-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.

AB - The Soft X-ray Spectrometer onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-To 12-keV band. Extensive preflight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsar wind nebulae to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate-valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab nebula to refine the pixel-To-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.

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