In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

Maurice A. Leutenegger, Marc Audard, Kevin R. Boyce, Gregory V. Brown, Meng P. Chiao, Megan E. Eckart, Ryuichi Fujimoto, Akihiro Furuzawa, Matteo Guainazzi, Daniel Haas, Jan Willem Den Herder, Takayuki Hayashi, Ryo Iizuka, Manabu Ishida, Yoshitaka Ishisaki, Richard L. Kelley, Naomichi Kikuchi, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Shu Koyama, Sho KurashimaYoshitomo Maeda, Maxim Markevitch, Dan McCammon, Kazuhisa Mitsuda, Hideyuki Mori, Nozomi Nakaniwa, Takashi Okajima, Stéphane Paltani, Robert Petre, F. Scott Porter, Kosuke Sato, Toshiki Sato, Makoto Sawada, Peter J. Serlemitsos, Hiromi Seta, Gary Sneiderman, Yang Soong, Satoshi Sugita, Andrew E. Szymkowiak, Yoh Takei, Makoto Tashiro, Yuzuru Tawara, Masahiro Tsujimoto, Cor P. De Vries, Tomomi Watanabe, Shinya Yamada, Noriko Yamasaki

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-12 keV band. Extensive pre-flight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse-height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse-height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source, and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsars to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency, and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab pulsar to refine the pixel-to-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016
Subtitle of host publicationUltraviolet to Gamma Ray
EditorsMarshall Bautz, Tadayuki Takahashi, Jan-Willem A. den Herder
PublisherSPIE
Volume9905
ISBN (Electronic)9781510601895
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-01-2016
Externally publishedYes
EventSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray - Edinburgh, United Kingdom
Duration: 26-06-201601-07-2016

Other

OtherSpace Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityEdinburgh
Period26-06-1601-07-16

Fingerprint

X ray spectrometers
Soft X-ray
Spectrometer
Calibration
Pixel
Pixels
flight
spectrometers
pixels
Pulsars
Energy
x rays
Telescopes
X rays
Telescope
pulse amplitude
Timing
pulsars
Detector
Imaging Spectroscopy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Leutenegger, M. A., Audard, M., Boyce, K. R., Brown, G. V., Chiao, M. P., Eckart, M. E., ... Yamasaki, N. (2016). In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer. In M. Bautz, T. Takahashi, & J-W. A. den Herder (Eds.), Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray (Vol. 9905). [99053U] SPIE. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2234230
Leutenegger, Maurice A. ; Audard, Marc ; Boyce, Kevin R. ; Brown, Gregory V. ; Chiao, Meng P. ; Eckart, Megan E. ; Fujimoto, Ryuichi ; Furuzawa, Akihiro ; Guainazzi, Matteo ; Haas, Daniel ; Den Herder, Jan Willem ; Hayashi, Takayuki ; Iizuka, Ryo ; Ishida, Manabu ; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka ; Kelley, Richard L. ; Kikuchi, Naomichi ; Kilbourne, Caroline A. ; Koyama, Shu ; Kurashima, Sho ; Maeda, Yoshitomo ; Markevitch, Maxim ; McCammon, Dan ; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa ; Mori, Hideyuki ; Nakaniwa, Nozomi ; Okajima, Takashi ; Paltani, Stéphane ; Petre, Robert ; Porter, F. Scott ; Sato, Kosuke ; Sato, Toshiki ; Sawada, Makoto ; Serlemitsos, Peter J. ; Seta, Hiromi ; Sneiderman, Gary ; Soong, Yang ; Sugita, Satoshi ; Szymkowiak, Andrew E. ; Takei, Yoh ; Tashiro, Makoto ; Tawara, Yuzuru ; Tsujimoto, Masahiro ; De Vries, Cor P. ; Watanabe, Tomomi ; Yamada, Shinya ; Yamasaki, Noriko. / In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer. Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. editor / Marshall Bautz ; Tadayuki Takahashi ; Jan-Willem A. den Herder. Vol. 9905 SPIE, 2016.
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abstract = "The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-12 keV band. Extensive pre-flight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse-height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse-height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source, and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsars to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency, and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab pulsar to refine the pixel-to-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.",
author = "Leutenegger, {Maurice A.} and Marc Audard and Boyce, {Kevin R.} and Brown, {Gregory V.} and Chiao, {Meng P.} and Eckart, {Megan E.} and Ryuichi Fujimoto and Akihiro Furuzawa and Matteo Guainazzi and Daniel Haas and {Den Herder}, {Jan Willem} and Takayuki Hayashi and Ryo Iizuka and Manabu Ishida and Yoshitaka Ishisaki and Kelley, {Richard L.} and Naomichi Kikuchi and Kilbourne, {Caroline A.} and Shu Koyama and Sho Kurashima and Yoshitomo Maeda and Maxim Markevitch and Dan McCammon and Kazuhisa Mitsuda and Hideyuki Mori and Nozomi Nakaniwa and Takashi Okajima and St{\'e}phane Paltani and Robert Petre and Porter, {F. Scott} and Kosuke Sato and Toshiki Sato and Makoto Sawada and Serlemitsos, {Peter J.} and Hiromi Seta and Gary Sneiderman and Yang Soong and Satoshi Sugita and Szymkowiak, {Andrew E.} and Yoh Takei and Makoto Tashiro and Yuzuru Tawara and Masahiro Tsujimoto and {De Vries}, {Cor P.} and Tomomi Watanabe and Shinya Yamada and Noriko Yamasaki",
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Leutenegger, MA, Audard, M, Boyce, KR, Brown, GV, Chiao, MP, Eckart, ME, Fujimoto, R, Furuzawa, A, Guainazzi, M, Haas, D, Den Herder, JW, Hayashi, T, Iizuka, R, Ishida, M, Ishisaki, Y, Kelley, RL, Kikuchi, N, Kilbourne, CA, Koyama, S, Kurashima, S, Maeda, Y, Markevitch, M, McCammon, D, Mitsuda, K, Mori, H, Nakaniwa, N, Okajima, T, Paltani, S, Petre, R, Porter, FS, Sato, K, Sato, T, Sawada, M, Serlemitsos, PJ, Seta, H, Sneiderman, G, Soong, Y, Sugita, S, Szymkowiak, AE, Takei, Y, Tashiro, M, Tawara, Y, Tsujimoto, M, De Vries, CP, Watanabe, T, Yamada, S & Yamasaki, N 2016, In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer. in M Bautz, T Takahashi & J-WA den Herder (eds), Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. vol. 9905, 99053U, SPIE, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 26-06-16. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2234230

In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer. / Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Audard, Marc; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Guainazzi, Matteo; Haas, Daniel; Den Herder, Jan Willem; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishida, Manabu; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kelley, Richard L.; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Koyama, Shu; Kurashima, Sho; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Markevitch, Maxim; McCammon, Dan; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Mori, Hideyuki; Nakaniwa, Nozomi; Okajima, Takashi; Paltani, Stéphane; Petre, Robert; Porter, F. Scott; Sato, Kosuke; Sato, Toshiki; Sawada, Makoto; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Seta, Hiromi; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Sugita, Satoshi; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; De Vries, Cor P.; Watanabe, Tomomi; Yamada, Shinya; Yamasaki, Noriko.

Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. ed. / Marshall Bautz; Tadayuki Takahashi; Jan-Willem A. den Herder. Vol. 9905 SPIE, 2016. 99053U.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

AU - Leutenegger, Maurice A.

AU - Audard, Marc

AU - Boyce, Kevin R.

AU - Brown, Gregory V.

AU - Chiao, Meng P.

AU - Eckart, Megan E.

AU - Fujimoto, Ryuichi

AU - Furuzawa, Akihiro

AU - Guainazzi, Matteo

AU - Haas, Daniel

AU - Den Herder, Jan Willem

AU - Hayashi, Takayuki

AU - Iizuka, Ryo

AU - Ishida, Manabu

AU - Ishisaki, Yoshitaka

AU - Kelley, Richard L.

AU - Kikuchi, Naomichi

AU - Kilbourne, Caroline A.

AU - Koyama, Shu

AU - Kurashima, Sho

AU - Maeda, Yoshitomo

AU - Markevitch, Maxim

AU - McCammon, Dan

AU - Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

AU - Mori, Hideyuki

AU - Nakaniwa, Nozomi

AU - Okajima, Takashi

AU - Paltani, Stéphane

AU - Petre, Robert

AU - Porter, F. Scott

AU - Sato, Kosuke

AU - Sato, Toshiki

AU - Sawada, Makoto

AU - Serlemitsos, Peter J.

AU - Seta, Hiromi

AU - Sneiderman, Gary

AU - Soong, Yang

AU - Sugita, Satoshi

AU - Szymkowiak, Andrew E.

AU - Takei, Yoh

AU - Tashiro, Makoto

AU - Tawara, Yuzuru

AU - Tsujimoto, Masahiro

AU - De Vries, Cor P.

AU - Watanabe, Tomomi

AU - Yamada, Shinya

AU - Yamasaki, Noriko

PY - 2016/1/1

Y1 - 2016/1/1

N2 - The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-12 keV band. Extensive pre-flight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse-height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse-height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source, and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsars to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency, and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab pulsar to refine the pixel-to-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.

AB - The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) orbiting x-ray observatory featured an array of 36 silicon thermistor x-ray calorimeters optimized to perform high spectral resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy of astrophysical sources in the 0.3-12 keV band. Extensive pre-flight calibration measurements are the basis for our modeling of the pulse-height-energy relation and energy resolution for each pixel and event grade, telescope collecting area, detector efficiency, and pulse arrival time. Because of the early termination of mission operations, we needed to extract the maximum information from observations performed only days into the mission when the onboard calibration sources had not yet been commissioned and the dewar was still coming into thermal equilibrium, so our technique for reconstructing the per-pixel time-dependent pulse-height-energy relation had to be modified. The gain scale was reconstructed using a combination of an absolute energy scale calibration at a single time using a fiducial from an onboard radioactive source, and calibration of a dominant time-dependent gain drift component using a dedicated calibration pixel, as well as a residual time-dependent variation using spectra from the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The energy resolution was also measured using the onboard radioactive sources. It is consistent with instrument-level measurements accounting for the modest increase in noise due to spacecraft systems interference. We use observations of two pulsars to validate our models of the telescope area and detector efficiency, and to derive a more accurate value for the thickness of the gate valve Be window, which had not been opened by the time mission operations ceased. We use observations of the Crab pulsar to refine the pixel-to-pixel timing and validate the absolute timing.

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BT - Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016

A2 - Bautz, Marshall

A2 - Takahashi, Tadayuki

A2 - den Herder, Jan-Willem A.

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Leutenegger MA, Audard M, Boyce KR, Brown GV, Chiao MP, Eckart ME et al. In-flight verification of the calibration and performance of the ASTRO-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer. In Bautz M, Takahashi T, den Herder J-WA, editors, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray. Vol. 9905. SPIE. 2016. 99053U https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2234230