This study aims to clarify (i) the incidence of pressure ulcers in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and (ii) risk factors of pressure ulcer development. All infants admitted to the NICU and kept in incubators from seven hospitals during the study period were recruited to the study. Each infant was given skin examination every day by nurses, and risk factors were collected three times a week by one researcher. The incidence of the pressure ulcers was calculated, and the risk factors for pressure ulcers were determined by using univariate and multivariate analysis. Eighty-one infants were involved in the study. A total of 14 pressure ulcers occurred in 13 infants during the 11-month study period, the incidence was 0·01 persons per day and cumulative incidence rate was 16·0%. Seven (50·0%) of 14 pressure ulcers were located on the nose. Multivariate analysis identified the following risk factors: skin texture (Dubowitz neonatal maturation assessment scale: skin texture score of 1 point or lower) [odds ratio 7·6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·58 -36·71, P = 0·012] and endotracheal intubation usage (odds ratio 4·0; 95% CI 1·04-15·42, P = 0·042).
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