Purpose: Extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) resection is performed as part of radical cholecystectomy for gallbladder (GB) cancer. However, the indication for EHBD resection is still controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of this procedure. Methods: Patients who underwent surgical resection for GB cancer with curative intent were enrolled. We divided GB cancer into two categories based on the tumor location: proximal-type and distal-type tumors. The former refers to tumors involving the neck or cystic duct, while the latter comprises tumors located between the body and fundus. Results: This study included 80 patients, 40 each with proximal- and distal-type tumors. Proximal tumor location, lymph node metastasis, and a serum carcinoembryonic antigen level > 5.0 ng/mL were independent predictors of poor prognosis. The 5-year survival rates of patients with proximal-type and distal-type tumors were 33.3 and 73.5%, respectively. Patients with proximal-type tumors showed significantly lower rates of R0 resection, more frequently had ≥ 3 metastatic lymph nodes, and exhibited a higher rate of perineural invasion. EHBD resection improved prognoses only in patients with proximal-type tumors but not in those with distal-type tumors. In the former group, EHBD resection significantly reduced the rate of local or regional lymph node recurrence. Conclusions: Extended cholecystectomy with EHBD resection should be performed for patients with GB cancer involving the neck and cystic duct to reduce local and regional lymph node recurrence and achieve better prognosis.
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