Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 is upregulated in activated microglia in mice cerebellum during acute viral encephalitis

Ayako Taguchi, Masayuki Niwa, Masato Hoshi, Kuniaki Saito, Teruaki Masutani, Kenji Hisamatsu, Kazuhiro Kobayashi, Yuichiro Hatano, Hiroyuki Tomita, Akira Hara

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15 Citations (Scopus)


Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase1 (IDO1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the kynurenine pathway that converts l-tryptophan to l-kynurenine. Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) can cause acute myocarditis in various animals including mice. Previously, IDO1 has been reported to have an important immunomodulatory function in immune-related diseases. However, the pathophysiological roles of IDO1 following acute viral infection of central nervous system are not fully understood. We observed that acute EMCV infection leads to a highly reproducible neuronal degeneration in mouse cerebellum. The goal of this study is to determine tissue/cell-specific and time-dependent expressions of IDO1 during acute EMCV infection in mouse cerebellum. IDO1 was up-regulated in microglia, which was recognized to be activated morphologically and positive for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), a protein expressed in microglia, within EMCV-induced cerebellar lesions showing neuronal degeneration although the very weak expression of IDO1 is detected only in cytoplasm of Purkinje cells. No GFAP immunostaining was observed in EMCV-induced cerebellar lesions although many reactive astrocytes surrounding the lesions showed strongly positive immunostaining for GFAP 10 days after the viral inoculation. Thus, IDO1 expression may affect EMCV-induced neuronal degeneration in cerebellum.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120-125
Number of pages6
JournalNeuroscience Letters
Publication statusPublished - 03-04-2014
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)


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