We investigated the effects of signaling through CD28 family molecules on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for inducible costimulator (ICOS) suppressed both X4 and R5 HIV-1 replication in CD4+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This suppression was not attributable to reduced cell growth or viability. CD28 mAb showed variable effects and also suppressed HIV-1 replication when immobilized. Replication of pseudotype viruses with HIV-1-but not with vesicular stomatitis virus G-envelope was efficiently suppressed in CD4+ PBMC treated with ICOS or CD28 mAbs. However, CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 expression on the surface was not down-regulated. Moreover, HIV-1 replication in CD4+ PBMC was suppressed by a soluble form of human B7-H2, a ligand of ICOS, but was enhanced by soluble B7-1, a ligand for CD28. These findings suggest that natural or artificial ligands for ICOS potentially suppress HIV-1 replication mainly at the entry stages.
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