Influence of hematoma volume and age on cognitive functions and ADL after putaminal hemorrhage

Makoto Watanabe, Kotaro Takeda, Shinichiro Maeshima, Takaji Suzuki, Shigeru Sonoda

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Background and objective: After cerebral hemorrhage, cognitive functions and activities of daily living (ADL) are affected by various factors, including hematoma volume and patient age. In the present study, we investigated the effect of age and hematoma volume on cognitive functions and on ADL. Methods: The sample comprised 274 patients (183 men and 91 women; mean age 58.2 ± 12.5 years) with putaminal hemorrhage who were hospitalized in a convalescent rehabilitation ward. Hematoma volume was estimated from computed tomography imaging at stroke onset. Cognitive functions were evaluated using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices test (RCPM) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at hospital admission, while ADL score was assessed at discharge using the Functional Independence Measure motor subscale (FIM-M). In the present study, we classified the patients into six groups according to whether they were non-elderly or elderly (cutoff age, 60 years) and whether their hematoma was small, medium, or large (cutoff volumes, 20 and 40 mL, respectively). Subsequently, the scores on the RCPM, MMSE, and FIM-M were compared among the groups. Results: In both age groups, patients with a larger hematoma volume had lower RCPM and MMSE scores. Patients <60 years old exhibited different trends in their RCPM and MMSE scores, such that the RCPM score showed a step-wise decrease according to hematoma volume, while a difference in the MMSE score was only observed at the 20 mL boundary. Most of the younger patients (<60 years of age) attained high FIM-M scores at discharge, as long as their hematoma volume was either medium or small (<40 mL). This age group had higher RCPM scores on admission, which may have contributed to their higher FIM-M scores on discharge. Conclusions: In the present study, we demonstrated that advancing age increases the effect of hematoma volume on RCPM and MMSE scores and identified differences in the effects observed on these two scores. Thus, it may be important to use the RCPM alongside the MMSE for patient assessment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105063
JournalJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 09-2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Rehabilitation
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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