Background: There is lack of evidence regarding nutritional management among intensive care unit (ICU) patients in a population with relatively low body mass index. Therefore, we conducted an observational study to assess the nutritional management in Japanese ICUs. Also, we investigated the impact of nutritional management and rehabilitation on physical outcome. Methods: The study population comprised 389 consecutive patients who received mechanical ventilation for at least 24 h and those admitted to the ICU for > 72 h in 13 hospitals. The primary outcomes were caloric and protein intake in ICU on days 3 and 7, and at ICU discharge. The secondary outcome was the impact of nutritional management and rehabilitation on physical status at ICU discharge. We defined good physical status as more than end sitting and poor physical status as bed rest and sitting. We divided the participants into 2 groups, namely, the good physical status group (Good group) and poor physical status group (Poor group) for analysis of the secondary outcome. Data were expressed as median (interquartile range). Results: The median amount of caloric intake on days 3 and 7, and at ICU discharge via enteral and parenteral routes were 8.4 (3.1-15.6), 14.9 (7.5-22.0), and 11.2 (2.5-19.1) kcal/kg/day, respectively. The median amount of protein intake on days 3 and 7, and at ICU discharge were 0.2 (0-0.5), 0.4 (0.1-0.8), and 0.3 (0-0.7) g/kg/day, respectively. The amount of caloric intake on day 3 in the Poor group was significantly higher than that of the Good group (10.1 [5.8, 16.2] vs. 5.2 [1.9, 12.4] kcal/kg/day, p < 0.001). The proportion of patients who were received rehabilitation in ICU in the Good group was significantly higher than that of the Poor group (92 vs. 63%, p < 0.001). The multivariate analysis revealed that caloric intake on day 3 and rehabilitation in ICU were considered independent factors that affect physical status (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.05-1.34; p = 0.005 and OR 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.34; p = 0.001). Conclusions: The caloric and protein intakes in Japanese ICUs were 15 kcal/kg/day and 0.4 g/kg/day, respectively. In addition, critically ill patients might benefit from low caloric intake (less than 10 kcal/kg/day) until day 3 and rehabilitation during ICU stay.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics