Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. A common polymorphism at codon 12 of this gene (Pro12Ala) has been shown to confer protection against diabetes and colorectal cancer. We investigated the influence of PPARγ gene Plo12Ala polymorphism on the risk of gastric cancer and on the severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Japanese. About 215 patients with gastric cancer (GC) and 201 patients without GC enrolled in this study. Plo12Ala polymorphism of PPARγ was investigated by PCR-RFLP in all of the subjects. The gastritis score of noncancerous antral mucosa was calculated by the updated Sydney system. The diagnosis of IFG was based on repeated evidence of serum fasting glucose (SFG) concentration of greater than or equal to 110 mg/dl. The Plo12Ala genotype of PPARγ showed a significantly higher frequency in GC patients than in controls (OR = 2.43; 95%CI = 1.04-5.67). In contrast, the Plo12Ala genotype held a lower risk of IFG (OR = 0.33; 95%CI = 0.13-0.83). The same genotype was associated with an increased risk of non-cardiac gastric cancer (OR = 2.39; 95%CI = 1.02-5.65), lower third gastric cancer (OR = 3.56; 95%CI = 1.31-9.71), advanced cancer (OR = 2.93; 95%CI = 1.13-7.58), and Lauren's intestinal cancer (OR = 2.94; 95%CI = 1.13-7.66). Among 151 gastric cancer subjects, the atrophy and metaplasia scores of the antral mucosa adjacent to cancer showed a tendency to be higher in those with the12Ala allele. Our study suggests that the PPARγ Pro12Ala polymorphism may be a shared risk marker of both IFG and gastric cancer in Japanese.
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