Objective: We have previously synthesized a novel piperidine compound, 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)methyl]glutarimide (DTCM-glutarimide), that inhibits LPS-induced NO production, and in the present research we studied further the anti-inflammatory activity of DTCM-glutarimide in a macrophage cell line and in mice bearing transplanted hearts. Materials and methods: Mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells were employed for the evaluation of cellular inflammatory activity. DTCM-glutarimide was synthesized in our laboratory. The AP-1 activity was measured by nuclear translocation and phosphorylation. For the heart transplantation experiment, male C57BL/6 (H-2b) and BALB/c (H-2d) mice were used as donor and recipient, respectively. DTCM-glutarimide was administered intraperitoneally. Results: DTCM-glutarimide inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 in macrophages; but, unexpectedly, it did not inhibit LPS-induced NF-κB activation. Instead, it inhibited the nuclear translocation of both c-Jun and c-Fos. It also inhibited LPS-induced c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover, it inhibited the mixed lymphocyte reaction in primary cultures of mouse spleen cells; and furthermore, in mice it prolonged the graft survival in heart transplantation experiments. Conclusion: The novel piperidine compound, DTCM-glutarimide, was found to be a new inhibitor of macrophage activation, inhibiting AP-1 activity. It also inhibited graft rejection in mice, and thus may be a candidate for an anti-inflammatory agent.
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