Inter-rater reliability of a pressure injury risk assessment scale for home care: A multicenter cross-sectional study

Masushi Kohta, Takehiko Ohura, Kunio Tsukada, Yoshinori Nakamura, Mishiho Sukegawa, Eiko Kumagai, Yuki Kameda, Toshihiro Kitte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The aim of the current study was to assess the inter-rater reliability and agreement of the Pressure Injury Primary Risk Assessment Scale for Home Care (PPRA-Home), a risk assessment scale recently developed for Japan-specific social welfare professionals called care managers, to predict pressure injury risk in geriatric individuals who require long-term home care needs. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted at 30 home-based geriatric support services facilities located at four local districts in Japan. Eligible participants were individuals who needed partial or full assistance for daily living under Japan’s long-term care insurance system (care levels 1–5). The degree of agreement and kappa coefficient were calculated for each item and the total score, after which inter-rater reliability was determined. The effect of the participant’s care level on reliability was also evaluated as secondary analysis. Results: A total of 96 participants were assessed by 83 care managers (two assessors scored each participant). The degree of agreement and calculated kappa coefficient of the PPRA-Home total score were 59% and 0.72, respectively, with the inter-rater reliability for the total score determined to be “Substantial”. Our subgroup analysis showed that the inter-rater reliability differed according to the participant’s care level. Accordingly, the kappa coefficient for the total score was lower in subgroup “care level 1–3” than in subgroup “care level 4–5” (0.51 and 0.76, respectively). Conclusion: Our result showed that the PPRA-Home has substantial inter-rater reliability for evaluation of risks of pressure injury development at home care. However, some research focusing on intra-later reliability and validity of the PPRA-Home with adequate sample sizes are required to provide categorical conclusions on whether it can be used for the risk assessment scale in actual clinical settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2031-2041
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Nursing


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