Background: To investigate the incidence of pulmonary embolism and risk factors for this condition after obstetric and gynecologic surgery, as well as the efficacy of intermittent pneumatic compression. Methods: A total of 6,218 patients operated at Keio University Hospital excluding obstetric or infertility-related surgery and uterine cervical conization were evaluated retrospectively to determine the preventive effect of intermittent pneumatic compression on postoperative pulmonary embolism. Results: Pulmonary embolism occurred in 42 patients (0.68%). Multivariate analysis showed that malignancy, blood transfusion, and a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 or ≥28 kg/m2 were independent risk factors for postoperative pulmonary embolism. A significantly lower incidence of pulmonary embolism occurred in patients receiving pneumatic compression postoperatively versus those without it. Among gynecologic malignancies, endometrial cancer was a significant risk factor for pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Preventive measures, including intermittent pneumatic compression, should be taken to avoid postoperative pulmonary thromboembolism in the gynecology field.
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