We have compared the distribution of fluconazole (FLC) with that of itraconazole (ITC) and griseofulvin (GRF) in the abdominal skin tissues after a single oral dose was administered to guinea pigs. The FLC concentrations in the stratum corneum reached a peak at 2 h after administration and were similar to those of ITC and higher than those of GRF in spite of the administration of a lower dose. GRF was eliminated from the stratum corneum faster than FLC and ITC. The FLC concentrations were also remarkably higher than those of ITC and GRF in the epidermis-cutis but lower in the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The distribution characteristics of each drug result from differences in their physicochemical properties. Following the administration of multiple doses, the FLC concentrations in the stratum corneum were highest in the abdominal skin tissues; those at 24 h after each administration increased gradually and were maintained at a level more than 10 times higher than that of the plasma concentrations. The FLC concentrations in the planta pedis stratum corneum and in the nail showed good dose proportionality and obvious accumulation and were 60 and 40 times as high as that in plasma on day 14. The extent of binding of FLC to human corneous keratin in vitro was about 10%, which is lower than those of ITC (94 to 97%) and GRF (36 to 38%). FLC, unlike ITC, therefore, is presumed to exist in the stratum corneum at high concentrations in an active nonbinding form. These excellent intracutaneous pharmacokinetic properties of FLC probably account in large part for the in vivo efficacy of FLC.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases