A 52-year-old woman was found to have a liver tumor during treatment for a liver abscess. The tumor was diagnosed as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma by closer examinations, including a percutaneous needle biopsy. Ten years previously, she had undergone excision of a choledochal cyst, with reconstruction by Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, as treatment for Todani's type Ia congenital biliary dilation, which had been confined only to the extrahepatic bile duct. The significant association between congenital biliary dilation and hepatobiliary malignancies is well known. Some patients have been reported to develop biliary cancer long after the excision of the entire extrahepatic bile duct and hepaticoenterostomy. However, in these patients, the development mostly took place in the remnant choledochal cyst, the anastomotic site, or in the dilated intrahepatic bile duct of Todani's type IV-A congenital biliary dilation. The development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma after operation has not been reported previously in a patient with Todani's type I congenital biliary dilation. This case suggests that the entire biliary tree may have a high risk of field cancerization, even in extrahepatic congenital biliary dilation.
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