Aim: In operating rooms, the occurrence of pressure ulcers caused by being in the prone position is the highest among that of pressure ulcers caused by being in other surgical positions. Thus, we investigated effects of hardness and shape of urethane foam mattresses for preventing pressure ulcers during surgery performed with patients in the prone position. We aimed to elucidate how mattresses of variable hardness and shapes affect compression and displacement of the skin and soft tissues with external force in the prone position. Material and methods: We assessed effects of two shapes [rectangular cube (RC) and trapezoid cube (TC)] and four degrees of hardness (50, 87.5, 175, and 262.5 N) in each shape. We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the iliac crests with external force while participants reclined in the prone position on eight different mattresses. Results: Compression of the skin and soft tissue was significantly higher with 87.5-, 175-, and 262.5-N mattresses than that with 50-N mattresses. Skin and soft tissue displacement was higher with TC mattress than that with RC mattress, and the extent of skin surface and internal soft tissue displacement was different. Conclusions: Compression of the skin and soft tissue depends on mattress hardness; however, a threshold value (175 N) for hardness exists, above which no further changes in the parameters were observed. Skin and soft tissue displacement does not depend on mattress hardness, but rather on its shape. Furthermore, mattress inclination increases skin surface displacement.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine