Background/purpose: Wound infection; that is, incisional surgical site infection (ISSI), is a common complication after biliary tract surgery. The aim of the present study was to identify the various risk factors for wound infection and to establish a formula to predict the development and severity of wound infections. Methods: We analyzed the clinical data on 207 consecutive patients who underwent biliary surgery for benign diseases at our hospital. We identified the factors with the greatest influence on wound infection after biliary tract surgery, based on a statistical procedure. An original scoring system (ISSI predictive score) was proposed based on these risk factors. Results: The incidence of postoperative wound infection was 9.7% (20/207). The patient's performance status; bile culture; perioperative fasting period (days); and intraoperative bile spillage were the most influential risk factors for wound infection. The incidences of wound infection in patients with ISSI predictive scores of >2.7 points and those with scores of 0-2.7 points were 75.0% (12/16) and 4.2% (8/191), respectively. Our score also correlated significantly with the severity of wound infection (r = 0.488, P<0.001) and the length of the postoperative hospital stay (R = 0.508, P<0.001). Conclusion: Our original scoring system makes it possible to predict not only the development of a wound infection and its severity after biliary tract surgery, but also the length of the postoperative hospital stay.
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