BACKGROUND Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an effective treatment for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although RFA is a relatively safe technique compared with surgery, several complications have been reported to be following/accompanying this treatment. Delayed diaphragmatic hernia caused by RFA is rare; however, the best surgical approach for its treatment is uncertain. We present a case of laparoscopic repair of diaphragmatic hernia due to RFA. CASE SUMMARY An 80-year-old woman with segment VIII HCC was treated twice in 5 years with RFA; 28 mo after the second RFA, the patient complained of right hypochondriac pain. Computed tomography revealed that the small intestine was incarcerated in the right thorax. The patient was diagnosed with diaphragmatic hernia and underwent laparoscopic repair by non-absorbable running sutures. The patient’s postoperative course was favorable, and the patient was discharged on postoperative day 12. The diaphragmatic hernia has not recurred 24 mo after surgery. CONCLUSION Laparoscopic treatment of iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia is effective and minimally invasive.
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