Life expectancy and healthy life expectancy of Japan: the fastest graying society in the world

Shinkan Tokudome, Shuji Hashimoto, Akihiro Igata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: We appraised time trends of Japanese life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) by gender, LE-HALE and (LE-HALE)/LE figures, along with the women-men's differences. Methods: Using the Japanese LE and HALE values from 1990 through 2013 by gender in the article by the GBD 2013 DALYs and HALE Collaborators, we examined trends of LE and HALE, and their 5- or 3-year changes. We also probed LE-HALE and (LE-HALE)/LE values, and the women-men's differences. Results: LE consistently elongated as reported 76.0, 76.5, 77.6, 78.7, 79.3 and 80.1 years for men from 1990 to 2013; and 82.0, 82.8, 84.3, 85.5, 86.1 and 86.4 years for women, respectively. Both time trends demonstrated a significant linear increase (p for trend < 0.001). LE changes were 0.4, 1.1, 1.1, 0.7 and 0.7 years for men, and 0.9, 1.5, 1.2, 0.6 and 0.3 years for women. The trends were statistically significant (p < 0.001), except for 2010-2013 partly due to 3-year interval. HALE also steadily lengthened as seen 68.1, 68.4, 69.1, 69.9, 70.8 and 71.1 years for men from 1990 through 2013; and 72.2, 72.9, 74.0, 74.8, 75.4 and 75.6 years for women. Both time trends showed almost a linear increase (p < 0.05). HALE changes were 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 0.9 and 0.3 years for men, and 0.7, 1.0, 0.8, 0.6 and 0.2 years for women, without statistical significant trends. LE-HALE values were 8.0, 8.0, 8.5, 8.8, 8.6 and 8.9 years for men; and 9.7, 9.9, 10.4, 10.7, 10.7 and 10.8 years for women. (LE-HALE)/LE figures were 10.5, 10.5, 10.9, 11.1, 10.8 and 11.2% for men, and 11.9, 12.0, 12.3, 12.5, 12.4 and 12.5% for women. LE women-men's differences were 5.9, 6.4, 6.8, 6.8, 6.8 and 6.3 years, and the HALE figures were 4.2, 4.5, 4.9, 4.9, 4.6 and 4.5 years. Conclusions: LE and HALE consistently linearly elongated for both sexes over the study period. Not only LE-HALE but also (LE-HALE)/LE values were still growing for both sexes. Public health measures, nursing-care/services as well as social security schemes are called for to further elevate longevities, HALE in particular, and enhance quality of life and well-being.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalBMC Research Notes
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28-10-2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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