Liver Resection for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Tumor Thrombus in the Inferior Vena Cava or Right Atrium: A Large-scale Multicenter Survey Conducted in Japan

Akihiko Ichida, Takashi Kokudo, Shingo Shimada, Etsuro Hatano, Shoji Kubo, Yutaro Kato, Yoshiya Ishikawa, Akira Mori, Hideo Baba, Yutaka Matsuyama, Itaru Endo, Hiroki Yamaue, Masakazu Yamamoto, Norihiro Kokudo, Kiyoshi Hasegawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To clarify the short and long-term postoperative outcomes and surgical indications for patients accompanied by hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombus (TT) in the inferior vena cava (IVC) or right atrium (RA). Background: These patients are known to have an extremely poor prognosis; however, the postoperative outcomes have not been fully verified because of the rarity of this disease. Methods: We contacted 211 specialized centers in Japan and collected data on liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with TT in the IVC or RA from centers with experience performing surgery for such patients. The patient characteristics, operative procedures, and surgical outcomes were then analyzed. Results: A total of 119 patients from 23 institutions were enrolled; 49 patients had TT in the IVC below the diaphragm (type I), 42 had TT in the IVC above the diaphragm (type II), and 28 had TT entering the RA (type III). The severity and frequency of postoperative complications did not differ among the 3 groups. There was one surgery-related death in the type III group. The median survival times were 2.47 years in the type I group, 1.77 years in the type II group, and 1.02 years in the type III group. Multivariate analysis identified an indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes >15% and ≥3 tumors as prognostic factors affecting survival, whereas the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and ≥3 tumors were risk factors for recurrence. Conclusions: As the postoperative prognosis of patients with type I or type II disease and of patients with no risk factors is relatively good, surgery should be considered for these patient populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E549-E555
JournalAnnals of Surgery
Volume278
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-09-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery

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