Background: Transplanted organs from female donors are associated with less favorable prognoses and outcomes. This study aimed to determine whether donor gender affects levels of serum terminal complement component C5a and oxidative stress in pediatric living related liver transplantation (LRLTx) recipients. Material/Methods: The subjects were 43 patients (20 males and 23 females) who underwent LRLTx during childhood (age range 1.2 years to 14.4 years; mean age 5 years). Serum samples were taken during the patients’ regular outpatient visits after LRLTx. Serum C5a was measured using the specific human C5a ELISA kit. Serum total hydroperoxide (TH) and biological antioxidative potential (BAP) were measured using the free radical analytic system, and the oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated as the ratio of TH to BAP. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γGTP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were also measured as part of a typical outpatient examination for such patients. Results: C5a serum levels were higher in the 29 recipients who received their grafted livers from female donors than in the 14 recipients who received their grafted livers from male donors. Recipients who received their grafted livers from female donors had higher incidence of post-LTx (liver transplantation) complications. Female recipients from female donors showed the highest serum GPT and GOT levels, but this difference was only significant when compared to the female recipients from male donors (41.4±9.8 IU/L vs. 17.3±1.8 IU/L for GPT and 42.2±7.5 IU/L vs. 23.4±2.2 IU/L for GOT; P<0.05). Conclusions: Pediatric LRLTx patients who receive their grafts from female donors exhibit higher levels of serum C5a that probably plays a role in the immunological response against grafted livers from female donors in LTx.
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