Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder in which nonmotor symptoms, such as constipation and hyposmia, precede the onset of motor symptoms by 20 years. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers at the premotor stage of PD. We assessed the differences in longitudinal changes in anthropometric and serological indices obtained from health check-up data before and after the onset of motor symptoms between male and female PD patients and healthy subjects. We enrolled 22 male and 23 female PD patients and 60 male and 60 female healthy controls. A mixed-effects model was used to estimate the trajectory of each clinical marker over the years before and after motor symptoms onset in the PD subjects, which were then compared with the trajectories of the healthy controls. The results showed a premotor blood pressure increase in female PD patients and premotor decreases in haematocrit, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the male patients. Our results indicated that blood pressure, haematocrit and serum cholesterol levels are potential premotor markers of PD. Additionally, the changes in anthropometric and serological indices before PD motor symptoms onset were sex specific.
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