Background This study aimed to clarify the prognostic impact of partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) in patients with advanced chronic heart failure (HF). Methods Forty-eight patients (mean age 43.1 ± 11.9 years, 32 males) with chronic HF (44 with non-ischemic and 4 with ischemic cardiomyopathy) were prospectively enrolled. Echocardiography, blood tests, pulmonary function testing, and PETCO2 measurements were performed as noninvasive tests, whereas right heart catheterization and arterial blood gas analysis were conducted as invasive tests. The primary end point of this study was left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation or cardiac death. Results Eighteen patients underwent LVAD implantation at the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) profile 3 during the follow-up period, and no patient died. PETCO2 was significantly lower in a stepwise manner with New York Heart Association functional class (class I or II, 34.2 ± 9.3 mmHg vs. class III or IV, 27.7 ± 2.5 mmHg; p < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models and time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that PETCO2 ≤ 31 mmHg is an independent noninvasive predictor of LVAD implantation. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses showed that pulmonary arterial pressure was independently and highly correlated with PETCO2 (r2 = − 0.512, p < 0.001). Conclusions Among various noninvasive clinical parameters investigated, PETCO2 was the independent predictor of LVAD implantation at the INTERMACS profile 3 in patients with chronic HF. Pulmonary congestion may significantly contribute to decreases in PETCO2 in patients with HF.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine