In obese adipose tissue, infiltrating macrophages release proinflammatory cytokines that trigger insulin resistance. An adipocyte-based platform from visceral fat would be useful to elucidate the pathology of adipose inflammation and to develop therapeutic drugs for insulin resistance. ADSCs (adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) expanded from subcutaneous fat are intensively studied as sources for regenerative medicine. However, the adipocyte culture system from visceral fat tissue has not been utilized yet. We aimed to establish the bioactive adipocyte platform using ADSCs from visceral fat pad. Stromal vascular fractions were processed from epididymal fat pads of Sprague-Dawley rats and three human omental fat pads, and the ADSCs were expanded using a low-serum culture method. The responses of ADSCs and ADSC-adipocytes (their adipogenic lineages) to pioglitazone, a therapeutic drug for diabesity, were evaluated by gene expression and ELISA. ADSCs (1×108) were expanded from 10 g of rat epididymal fat pads or human omental fat pads over five passages. Cell surface marker expressions revealed that visceral ADSCs were equivalent to mesenchymal stem cells. ADSC-adipocytes expanded in the low-serum culture system significantly showed higher expression of adipogenic markers [PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) γ, LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and FABP4 (fatty acidbinding protein 4)] and adipocytokines [adiponectin, resistin, leptin, PAI-1 (plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1) and IL (interleukin)-10] than those expanded in a high-serum culture system. Pioglitazone accelerated the adipogenic induction and increased adiponectin expression in human ADSCs by 57.9±5.8-fold (mean±S.E.M.) relative to control cells (P<0.001). Both in rat and human ADSC-adipocytes, TNF-α significantly induced proinflammatory cytokines [MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and IL-6] and suppressed adiponectin expression, while pioglitazone antagonized these effects. The present findings suggest that visceral ADSC-adipocytes expanded in low-serum culture would be useful for adiposcience and pharmacological evaluations.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology