DNA methylation is associated with "field defect" in the gastric mucosa. To characterize "field defect" morphologically, we examined DNA methylation of non-neoplastic gastric mucosa in relation to their morphology seen by narrow-band imaging (NBI) with magnifying endoscopy. Magnifying NBI of non-neoplastic gastric body was classified as follows: normal-small and round pits with uniform subepithelial capillary networks; type 1-a little enlarged round pits with indistinct subepithelial capillary networks; type 2-remarkably enlarged pits with irregular vessels; and type 3-clearly demarcated oval or tubulovillous pits with bulky coiled or wavy vessels. Methylation of nine candidate genes (MYOD1, SLC16A12, GDNF, IGF2, MIR 124A1, CDH1, PRDM5, RORA and MLF1) were determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Infinium HumanMethylation450 array was used to characterize the methylation of >450,000 CpG sites. Mean Z score methylation of nine genes positively correlated with the changes of mucosal patterns from normal to types 1, 2, and 3 (P < 0.0001). Genome-wide analysis showed that development of mucosal patterns correlated with methylation accumulation especially at CpG islands. Genes with promoter CpG islands that were gradually methylated with the development of mucosal patterns significantly enriched the genes involved in zinc-related pathways. The results indicates that gastric mucosal morphology predicts a "field defect" in this tissue type. Accumulation of DNA methylation is associated with "field defect" in the non-neoplastic gastric mucosa. Endoscopic identification of "field defect" has important implications for preventing gastric cancer. Our results suggest that magnifying NBI of gastric mucosal morphology predicts a "field defect" in the gastric mucosa.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes