Recent results indicate that a fluoroalumino complex (AlFx) is probably the molecule responsible for the mitogenic effect of fluoride in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Initial analysis suggested that a tyrosine phosphorylation (tyr phos) process similar to that induced by thrombin and activation of the p42 MAP kinase (ERK 2) mediate this cellular response. In the present study, the signaling mechanism activated by AlFx was further investigated. The results indicated that AlFx dose-dependently enhanced the tyr phos of the cell adhesion proteins FAK and paxillin, as well as of the adaptor molecules p46(shc), p52(shc), and p66(shc) and their association with GRB2. Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with cytochalasin D completely prevented FAK and paxillin tyr phos without any alteration in the tyr phos of Shc proteins and activation of ERK2 induced by AlFx. This observation suggests that in confluent MC3T3-E1 cells, there is no link between the activation of FAK induced by AlFx and the stimulation of ERK2. Pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin inhibited Shc phosphorylation, activation of ERK2, and markedly reduced cell replication induced by AlFx. This toxin also significantly reduced the stimulation of Pi transport activity induced by AlFx in these cells. Alteration in tyr phos induced by AlFx was not associated with any detectable inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 cell homogenates, suggesting that enhanced tyr phos induced by AlFx probably resulted from activation of a tyrosine kinase. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the mitogenic effect of fluoride in MC3T3- E1 osteoblast-like cells is mediated by the activation of a pertussis toxin- sensitive Gi/o protein and suggest an important role for these heterotrimeric G proteins in controlling the growth and differentiation of bone-forming cells.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine