Menstrual and reproductive factors and the mortality risk of gastric cancer in Japanese menopausal females

Satoshi Kaneko, Akiko Tamakoshi, Yoshiyuki Ohno, Tetsuya Mizoue, Takesumi Yoshimura, Hideaki Toyoshima, Mitsuru Mori, Yutaka Motohashi, Shigeru Hisamichi, Yosikazu Nakamura, Takashi Shimamoto, Haruo Mikami, Shuji Hashimoto, Yutaka Inaba, Heizo Tanaka, Yoshiharu Hoshiyama, Hiroshi Suzuki, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Shinkan Tokudome, Yoshinori ItoAkio Koizumi, Takashi Kawamura, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Masahiro Nakao, Takaichiro Suzuki, Tsutomu Hashimoto, Takayuki Nose, Norihiko Hayakawa, Katsuhiro Fukuda, Tomoyuki Kitagawa, Toshio Kuroki, Naoyuki Okamoto, Teruo Ishibashi, Hideo Shio, Kazuo Tajima

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: The relationship between gastric cancer and menstrual and reproductive history was investigated for 40,535 postmenopausal females from a large-scale prospective cohort in Japan (JACC: Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk, sponsored by Monbusho). Methods: A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate risk with respect to menstrual and reproductive factors for gastric cancer mortality. The effects on risk of potential confounders such as lifestyle, dietary habits, and socioeconomic status were controlled for using a stepwise procedure. Results: During the study period (mean 8.2 years), 156 deaths due to gastric cancer were identified. Longer fertility tended to be inversely associated with risk of gastric cancer mortality, although the association was not significant. Late menopause had no obvious effect on gastric cancer risk. The risk ratio of delivery experience compared to no delivery was 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.27-1.41), and this effect was consistent regardless of the number of deliveries. Early menarche was not associated with the risk of gastric cancer. The potential confounders were not seen to have distinct effects on the associations. Conclusions: Multiparity appears to confer a protective tendency on gastric cancer mortality; however, this result is inconsistent with previous reports. Further information needs to be accumulated from epidemiological studies in order to clarify the role of reproductive factors in gastric cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-59
Number of pages7
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 02-2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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