Metabolic Syndrome and CKD in a General Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study

Toshiharu Ninomiya, Yutaka Kiyohara, Michiaki Kubo, Koji Yonemoto, Yumihiro Tanizaki, Yasufumi Doi, Hideki Hirakata, Mitsuo Iida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

138 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Metabolic syndrome has been linked with various atherosclerotic diseases, but has not been evaluated sufficiently as a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Methods: We followed up 1,440 community-dwelling individuals without CKD aged 40 years or older for 5 years and examined the effects of metabolic syndrome, defined by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, on the development of CKD. Results: During follow-up, 88 subjects experienced CKD. The age- and sex-adjusted 5-year cumulative incidence of CKD was significantly greater in subjects with than without metabolic syndrome (10.6% versus 4.8%; P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, even after adjustment for other confounding factors, including insulinemia, metabolic syndrome remained an independent risk factor for the occurrence of CKD (odds ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.52). Compared with subjects with 1 or fewer metabolic syndrome component, multivariate-adjusted odd ratios for CKD in subjects with 2, 3, and 4 or more metabolic syndrome components were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.60 to 2.12), 1.90 (95% CI, 0.98 to 3.69), and 2.79 (95% CI, 1.32 to 5.90), respectively. The rate of change in kidney function during 5 years decreased significantly in subjects with 4 or more metabolic syndrome components compared with those with 1 or fewer component in the age group of 40 to 59 years, whereas it also was significantly low in subjects with 3 metabolic syndrome components in the group aged 60 years or older. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome is a significant risk factor for the development of CKD in the general population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-391
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume48
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-09-2006
Externally publishedYes

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Chronic Renal Insufficiency
Population
Confidence Intervals
Odds Ratio
Independent Living
Multivariate Analysis
Age Groups
Cholesterol
Kidney
Education
Incidence

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nephrology

Cite this

Ninomiya, Toshiharu ; Kiyohara, Yutaka ; Kubo, Michiaki ; Yonemoto, Koji ; Tanizaki, Yumihiro ; Doi, Yasufumi ; Hirakata, Hideki ; Iida, Mitsuo. / Metabolic Syndrome and CKD in a General Japanese Population : The Hisayama Study. In: American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2006 ; Vol. 48, No. 3. pp. 383-391.
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abstract = "Background: Metabolic syndrome has been linked with various atherosclerotic diseases, but has not been evaluated sufficiently as a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Methods: We followed up 1,440 community-dwelling individuals without CKD aged 40 years or older for 5 years and examined the effects of metabolic syndrome, defined by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, on the development of CKD. Results: During follow-up, 88 subjects experienced CKD. The age- and sex-adjusted 5-year cumulative incidence of CKD was significantly greater in subjects with than without metabolic syndrome (10.6{\%} versus 4.8{\%}; P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, even after adjustment for other confounding factors, including insulinemia, metabolic syndrome remained an independent risk factor for the occurrence of CKD (odds ratio, 2.08; 95{\%} confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.52). Compared with subjects with 1 or fewer metabolic syndrome component, multivariate-adjusted odd ratios for CKD in subjects with 2, 3, and 4 or more metabolic syndrome components were 1.13 (95{\%} CI, 0.60 to 2.12), 1.90 (95{\%} CI, 0.98 to 3.69), and 2.79 (95{\%} CI, 1.32 to 5.90), respectively. The rate of change in kidney function during 5 years decreased significantly in subjects with 4 or more metabolic syndrome components compared with those with 1 or fewer component in the age group of 40 to 59 years, whereas it also was significantly low in subjects with 3 metabolic syndrome components in the group aged 60 years or older. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome is a significant risk factor for the development of CKD in the general population.",
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Ninomiya, T, Kiyohara, Y, Kubo, M, Yonemoto, K, Tanizaki, Y, Doi, Y, Hirakata, H & Iida, M 2006, 'Metabolic Syndrome and CKD in a General Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study', American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 383-391. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2006.06.003

Metabolic Syndrome and CKD in a General Japanese Population : The Hisayama Study. / Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Yonemoto, Koji; Tanizaki, Yumihiro; Doi, Yasufumi; Hirakata, Hideki; Iida, Mitsuo.

In: American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 48, No. 3, 01.09.2006, p. 383-391.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Metabolic Syndrome and CKD in a General Japanese Population

T2 - The Hisayama Study

AU - Ninomiya, Toshiharu

AU - Kiyohara, Yutaka

AU - Kubo, Michiaki

AU - Yonemoto, Koji

AU - Tanizaki, Yumihiro

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AU - Hirakata, Hideki

AU - Iida, Mitsuo

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N2 - Background: Metabolic syndrome has been linked with various atherosclerotic diseases, but has not been evaluated sufficiently as a risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Methods: We followed up 1,440 community-dwelling individuals without CKD aged 40 years or older for 5 years and examined the effects of metabolic syndrome, defined by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, on the development of CKD. Results: During follow-up, 88 subjects experienced CKD. The age- and sex-adjusted 5-year cumulative incidence of CKD was significantly greater in subjects with than without metabolic syndrome (10.6% versus 4.8%; P < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, even after adjustment for other confounding factors, including insulinemia, metabolic syndrome remained an independent risk factor for the occurrence of CKD (odds ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 3.52). Compared with subjects with 1 or fewer metabolic syndrome component, multivariate-adjusted odd ratios for CKD in subjects with 2, 3, and 4 or more metabolic syndrome components were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.60 to 2.12), 1.90 (95% CI, 0.98 to 3.69), and 2.79 (95% CI, 1.32 to 5.90), respectively. The rate of change in kidney function during 5 years decreased significantly in subjects with 4 or more metabolic syndrome components compared with those with 1 or fewer component in the age group of 40 to 59 years, whereas it also was significantly low in subjects with 3 metabolic syndrome components in the group aged 60 years or older. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome is a significant risk factor for the development of CKD in the general population.

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