Modification of the excess risk of coronary heart disease due to smoking by seafood/fish intake

E. S. Eshak, H. Iso, K. Yamagishi, Y. Kokubo, I. Saito, H. Yatsuya, N. Sawada, M. Inoue, S. Tsugane, M. Inoue, T. Sobue, T. Hanaoka, J. Ogata, S. Baba, T. Mannami, A. Okayama, Y. Kokubo, K. Miyakawa, F. Saito, A. KoizumiY. Sano, I. Hashimoto, T. Ikuta, Y. Miyajima, N. Suzuki, S. Nagasawa, Y. Furusugi, N. Nagai, H. Sanada, Y. Hatayama, F. Kobayashi, H. Uchino, Y. Shirai, T. Kondo, R. Sasaki, Y. Watanabe, Y. Miyagawa, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Kishimoto, E. Takara, T. Fukuyama, M. Kinjo, M. Irei, H. Sakiyama, K. Imoto, H. Yazawa, T. Seo, A. Seiko, F. Ito, F. Shoji, A. Murata, K. Minato, K. Motegi, T. Fujieda, K. Matsui, T. Abe, M. Katagiri, M. Suzuki, M. Doi, A. Terao, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tagami, H. Sueta, H. Doi, M. Urata, N. Okamoto, F. Ide, H. Sakiyama, N. Onga, H. Takaesu, M. Uehara, F. Horii, I. Asano, H. Yamaguchi, K. Aoki, S. Maruyama, M. Ichii, M. Takano, Y. Tsubono, K. Suzuki, Y. Honda, K. Yamagishi, S. Sakurai, M. Kabuto, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Matsumura, S. Sasaki, S. Watanabe, M. Akabane, T. Kadowaki, M. Noda, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Takashima, K. Nakamura, S. Matsushima, S. Natsukawa, H. Shimizu, H. Sugimura, S. Tominaga, H. Iso, M. Iida, W. Ajiki, A. Ioka, S. Sato, E. Maruyama, M. Konishi, K. Okada, I. Saito, N. Yasuda, S. Kono

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Abstract

Seafood/fish intake has been regarded as a protective factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), while smoking is a strong risk factor. To examine whether associations between smoking and risk of CHD are modified by seafood/fish intake, we studied 72,012 Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who completed 2 food frequency questionnaires, 5 years apart, during the period 1995-2009. After 878,163 person-years of follow-up, 584 incident cases of CHD (101 fatal and 483 nonfatal), including 516 myocardial infarctions, were documented. There was a clear dose-response association between smoking and CHD risk among subjects with a low seafood/fish intake (<86 g/day) but not among those with a high seafood/fish intake (≥86 g/day). Compared with never smokers, the multivariable hazard ratios in light (1-19 cigarettes/day), moderate (20-29 cigarettes/day), and heavy (≥30 cigarettes/day) smokers were 2.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.60, 3.56), 2.74 (95% CI: 1.90, 3.95), and 3.24 (95% CI: 2.12, 4.95), respectively, among low seafood/fish eaters and 1.13 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.99), 1.29 (95% CI: 0.95, 2.04), and 2.00 (95% CI: 1.18, 3.51), respectively, among high seafood/fish eaters. Compared with heavy smokers with a low seafood/fish intake, light smokers with a high seafood/fish intake had substantially reduced risk of CHD (hazard ratio = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.32, 0.98). High seafood/fish intake attenuated the positive association between smoking and risk of CHD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1173-1181
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Epidemiology
Volume179
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15-05-2014

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology

Cite this

Eshak, E. S., Iso, H., Yamagishi, K., Kokubo, Y., Saito, I., Yatsuya, H., Sawada, N., Inoue, M., Tsugane, S., Inoue, M., Sobue, T., Hanaoka, T., Ogata, J., Baba, S., Mannami, T., Okayama, A., Kokubo, Y., Miyakawa, K., Saito, F., ... Kono, S. (2014). Modification of the excess risk of coronary heart disease due to smoking by seafood/fish intake. American Journal of Epidemiology, 179(10), 1173-1181. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwu030