L-Amino acid oxidase (LAO, EC 22.214.171.124) is widely distributed in snake venom, and induces apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells, causing prolonged bleeding from vessel walls at bite sites. The effect of snake venom LAOs on platelet function is controversial. Further, we have little information on their structural characterization. We purified M (mamushi)-LAO, a single-chain glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 60 kDa and a pI of 4.9, from Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii (Japanese mamushi) venom, and determined the N-terminal and several internal amino acid sequences of this enzyme. Molecular cloning based on these data was conducted to elucidate its full-length cDNA structure (2192 nucleotides), which includes a putative 18 amino acid residue signal peptide and a 504 residue mature subunit. The predicted M-LAO translation product shares 87.3% identity with that of Crotalus adamanteus (Southeastern diamondback rattlesnake) LAO. M-LAO, up to a final concentration of 2.6 μM, inhibited both agonist- and shear stress-induced platelet aggregation (SIPA) dose-dependently. In agonist-induced platelet aggregation, M-LAO predominantly inhibited the second aggregation, but with a marginal inhibition of the first. In SIPA, the inhibition was more dramatic under low-shear stress than high-shear stress, and was enhanced by the presence of l-leucine, a substrate of this enzyme. Catalase, a H2O2 scavenger, totally quenched such enhancement. These results suggest that M-LAO inhibits the interaction between activated platelet integrin αIIb/β3 and fibrinogen through the continuous generation of H2O2, and may contribute to prolonged bleeding from the vessels at snake bite sites.
|Number of pages
|Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology
|Published - 12-01-2001
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Structural Biology