Molecular Evolution of GII.P31/GII.4_Sydney_2012 Norovirus over a Decade in a Clinic in Japan

Hiroshi Ushijima, Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Yuki Akari, Ngan Thi Kim Pham, Tung Phan, Shuichi Nishimura, Masaaki Kobayashi, Kumiko Sugita, Shoko Okitsu, Satoshi Komoto, Aksara Thongprachum, Pattara Khamrin, Niwat Maneekarn, Satoshi Hayakawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Norovirus (NoV) genogroup II, polymerase type P31, capsid genotype 4, Sydney_2012 variant (GII.P31/GII.4_Sydney_2012) has been circulating at high levels for over a decade, raising the question of whether this strain is undergoing molecular alterations without demonstrating a substantial phylogenetic difference. Here, we applied next-generation sequencing to learn more about the genetic diversity of 14 GII.P31/GII.4_Sydney_2012 strains that caused epidemics in a specific region of Japan, with 12 from Kyoto and 2 from Shizuoka, between 2012 and 2022, with an emphasis on amino acid (aa) differences in all three ORFs. We found numerous notable aa alterations in antigenic locations in the capsid region (ORF2) as well as in other ORFs. In all three ORFs, earlier strains (2013–2016) remained phylogenetically distinct from later strains (2019–2022). This research is expected to shed light on the evolutionary properties of dominating GII.P31/GII.4_Sydney_2012 strains, which could provide useful information for viral diarrhea prevention and treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3619
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 04-2024

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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