Mortality Risk Associated with Long-acting Injectable Antipsychotics: A Systematic Review and Meta-analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials

Taro Kishi, Shinji Matsunaga, Nakao Iwata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics (LAI-APs) have several advantages over oral medications, but deaths reported in Japan during the early post-marketing phase vigilance period have raised safety concerns. We conducted a series of meta-analyses to assess whether LAI-APs affect the mortality of patients with schizophrenia. Three categorical meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed to compare all-cause death (primary outcome) and death due to suicide: individual and pooled LAI-APs vs placebo, individual and pooled LAI-APs vs oral antipsychotics (OAPs), and head-to-head comparisons of LAI-APs. The risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated. We identified 52 RCTs (53 comparisons; total participants = 17 416, LAI-APs = 11 360, OAP = 3910, and placebo = 2146; mean study duration [wk]: LAI-APs vs placebo = 28.9, LAI-APs vs OAPs = 64.5). Neither pooled nor individual LAI-APs (aripiprazole, fluphenazine, olanzapine, paliperidone, and risperidone) differed from the placebo regarding the incidences of all-cause death (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.64, P =. 37) and death due to suicide (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.98, P =. 98). However, in a subgroup meta-analysis of only short-duration RCTs (≤13wk), pooled LAI-APs exhibited a trend toward lower incidence of all-cause death than placebo (RR = 0.29, P =. 08). Pooled LAI-APs (aripiprazole, fluphenazine, haloperidol, olanzapine, paliperidone, risperidone, and zuclopenthixol) did not differ from pooled OAPs regarding all-cause death (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.71, P =. 30) and death due to suicide (pooled LAI-APs: RR = 0.94, P =. 91). Individual LAI-APs and OAPs were associated with similar risks of death. Data for head-to-head comparisons of individual LAI-APs were insufficient. In conclusion, there was no significant difference between LAI-APs and placebo or OAPs regarding all-cause death and death due to suicide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1438-1445
Number of pages8
JournalSchizophrenia Bulletin
Volume42
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-11-2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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