Background: Arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) presents maldevelopment of the brain's vessels with a direct connection between cerebral arteries and veins. By current data, patients from Spetzler Ponce A (SP) are found to benefit from the treatment. Considering the outcome, most of SP C and some of the SP B are the most debatable. Objective: Arteriovenous malformation presents maldevelopment of the brain's vessels with a consequent direct connection between cerebral arteries and veins. The annual risk of hemorrhage in adults is reported for 2-3 %. They usually present with unilateral headaches seizures and intracranial hemorrhage. By current data, patients from Spetzler Ponce A (SP) are found to benefit from the treatment. Considering the outcome, most of SP C and some of the SP B are the most debatable. Methods: The study included a cohort of bAVM patients referred to Fujita Health University Bantane Hotokukai Hospital, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan where the main author (AA) has completed an international cerebrovascular fellowship under the mentorship of Professor Yoko Kato. Japanese Stroke Guidelines (JSG) were used for the treatment decision. Patients were graded according to the Spetzler Ponce (SP) system. Considering American Heart Association criteria (AHA), embolization was used as a part of multimodal treatment. Intraoperative microscopic video tools included Indocyanine green ICG, FLOW 800 and dual image video angiography DIVA. Clinical outcomes were measured using Modified Ranking Score (mRs). Results: A total of eleven patients with brain bAVM were studied with a median age of 32 years [IQR = 22-52]. There were ten patients presented with supratentorial and a single patient with infratentorial AVM. Patients were graded according to the Spetzler Ponce (SP) system. There were eight patients in SP A (72,7%), one in group B (9 %) while the rest of them were in C (18 %). Two patients had associated aneurysms that required treatment. The median size of the AVM nidus was 3,50 cm [IQR= 2-5]. Deep venous drainage was found in six patients while three were located in eloquent zones. Clinical outcomes were considered good by mRs <2 in eight patients, seven from the surgically treated group (72,7 % respectively). Surgery median length time was 427, 5 minutes; [IQR =320 - 463] with complete AVM resection in all patients and no mortality recorded in this cohort with the median follow up of 39,5 months [IQR = 19-59]. Conclusion: Ideal management of bAVM is still controversial. Those complex vascular lesions require multimodal treatment in a majority of cases in highly specialized centers. In SP A patients, surgery provides the best results with a positive outcome and a small number of complications. With the improvement of endovascular feeder occlusion SP B patients become prone to a more positive outcome. Nowadays, intraoperative microscopic tools such as FLOW 800, ICG and DIVA are irreplaceable while improving safety to deal with bAVM. For SP C patients, a combination of endovascular and stereotactic radiosurgery was found to be a good option in the present time.
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