The immunomodulatory effect of mung bean is mainly attributed to antioxidant properties of flavonoids; however, the precise machinery for biological effect on animal cells remains uncertain. To understand the physiological change produced by mung bean consumption, proteomic and metabolomic techniques were used. In vitro assay confirmed the importance of synergistic interaction among multiple flavonoids by IL-6 expression. Proteomic analysis detected that the abundance of 190 proteins was changed in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by treatment with coat extract. Pathway mapping revealed that a range of proteins were regulated including an interferon-responsive antiviral enzyme (2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase), antigen processing factors (immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein and protein disulfide-isomerase), and proteins related to proteasomal degradation. Major histocompatibility complex pathway was activated. These results suggest that mung bean consumption enhances immune response toward a Th2-promoting polarization. Biological significance This study highlighted the immunomodulation of RAW264.7 cells in response to treatment with mung bean seed coat extract, using gel-free proteomic technique. The mechanism of immunomodulation by mung bean has not been described until today except for a report which identified HMGB1 suppression as a pathway underlying the protective effect against sepsis. This study suggested that the mung bean is involved in the regulation of antigen processing and presentation, and thus shifts immune response from acute febrile illness to specific/systemic and long-lasting immunity to protect the host.
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