National Survey Identifying the Factors Affecting the Career Development of Cardiologists in Japan

Fumie Nishizaki, Mai Shimbo, Noriko Fukue, Chisa Matsumoto, Satsuki Noma, Satoko Ohno-Urabe, Chizuko A. Kamiya, Sachiko Kanki, Tomomi Ide, Hideo Izawa, Tatsunori Taniguchi, Atsuko Nakayama, Yoshio Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Equality in training opportunities, studying abroad, and satisfaction with work are not well investigated among Japanese cardiologists. Methods and Results: We studied cardiologists’ career development using a questionnaire that was emailed to 14,798 cardiologists belonging to the Japanese Circulation Society (JCS) in September 2022. Feelings regarding equality in training opportunities, preferences for studying abroad, and satisfaction with work were evaluated with regard to cardiologists’ age, sex, and other confounding factors. Survey responses were obtained from 2,566 cardiologists (17.3%). The mean (±SD) age of female (n=624) and male (n=1,942) cardiologists who responded to the survey was 45.6±9.5 and 50.0±10.6 years, respectively. Inequality in training opportunities was felt more by female than male cardiologists (44.1% vs. 33.9%) and by younger (<45 years old) than older (≥45 years old) (42.0% vs. 32.8%). Female cardiologists were less likely to prefer studying abroad (53.7% vs. 59.9%) and less satisfied with their work (71.3% vs. 80.8%) than male cardiologists. Increased feelings of inequality and lower work satisfaction were investigated among cardiologists who were young, had family care duties, and had no mentors. In the subanalysis, significant regional differences were found in cardiologists’ career development in Japan. Conclusions: Female and younger cardiologists felt greater inequality in career development than male and older cardiologists. A diverse workplace may prompt equality in training opportunities and work satisfaction for both female and male cardiologists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1219-1228
Number of pages10
JournalCirculation Journal
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 09-2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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