Endoscopic ultrasound is increasingly being used for evaluation of pancreatic diseases and pancreatic tumors. Among various pancreatic cystic lesions, cystic degeneration of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm is of the challenge in making diagnosis. Although unique characteristic of each type of pancreatic cystic lesions has been proposed abundantly, typical morphology of cystic degeneration of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm is still unclear. We, herein, reported a case of 66-year-old woman who was incidentally found to have a cystic lesion in the tail of pancreas upon screening transabdominal ultrasonography. A well-defined cystic lesion with rim calcification was noted on subsequent abdominal computed tomography. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a markedly thick-wall cystic lesion containing solid nodule inside which was not enhanced following contrast-enhanced study. A mucinous cystic neoplasm was suspected and the patient was proceeded with distal pancreatectomy. A definite diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasm was confirmed after staining with synaptophysin and chromogranin A. We performed a meticulous review on current literatures focusing on endoscopic characteristics of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms with cystic degeneration.
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