Loss-of-function homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in IL36RN, which encodes interleukin-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of skin disorders. We previously reported that Il36rn−/− mice exhibit an enhanced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response through increased neutrophil recruitment. In addition, Il36rn−/− mice show severe imiquimod-induced psoriatic skin lesions and enhanced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We hypothesized that NETs may play an important role in the CHS response. To confirm this, we examined the CHS response and NET formation in Il36rn−/− mice. Il36rn−/− mice showed enhanced CHS responses, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells, NET formation, and enhanced mRNA expression of cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1β, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL2, and IL-36γ. Furthermore, NET formation blockade improved the CHS response, which consequently decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and NET formation. Consistently, we observed decreased expression of these cytokines and chemokines. These findings indicate that IL-36Ra deficiency aggravates the CHS response caused by excessive inflammatory cell recruitment, NET formation, and cytokine and chemokine production, and that NET formation blockade alleviates the CHS response. Thus, NET formation may play a prominent role in the CHS response.
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