Non-immunological risk factors associated with chronic allograft nephropathy following kidney transplantation

Ryoichi Shiroki, Kiyotaka Hoshinaga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Although the precise mechanisms are unclear, not only alloantigen-dependent but also antigen-independent factors are generally thought to influence the development of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Among the non-immunological determinants, there are various factors related with donor, recipient and graft procurement. As donor factors, age and cause of death were demonstrated to be significantly independent in long-term graft survival of cadaveric kidney transplantation. Grafts from aged donors and from donors with athelosclerosis showed poor prognosis on graft survival. Regarding recipient factors, cardiovascular complications, as hypertension and hyperlipidemia, were responsible for graft as well as patient survival. In addition, CMV infection and drug nephrotoxicity were also shown to affect graft survival. For procurement factors, warm ischemia was determined to possess the strongest impact on long-term graft survival in our series of kidney transplant using grafts from non-heart beating donors (NHBDs). Delayed graft function, which correlated well with length of warm ischemia, also influenced long-term graft survival. These results proved that the supply of viable donor nephrons and the physiologic demands of the recipient are important determinants of long-term graft survival. So far there seems to be neither definitive nor specific treatment for CAN. It is basically essential to avoid graft damage before transplant and keep recipients from risk factors after transplant as much as possible. To improve long-term graft survival in cadaveric kidney transplantation, recipient selection is greatly important in terms of not only immunological compatibility but also body to nephron mass imbalance and ischemic time, which might cause fatal damage to grafts before engraftment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)693-697
Number of pages5
JournalActa Urologica Japonica
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 01-11-2002

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Urology


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