Purpose: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is now a feasible and less invasive resuscitation procedure. This study aimed to compare the clinical course of trauma and non-trauma patients undergoing REBOA. Methods: Patient demographics, etiology, bleeding sites, hemodynamic response, length of critical care, and cause of death were recorded. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between non-trauma and trauma patients. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was then conducted. Results: Between August 2011 and December 2015, 142 (36 non-trauma; 106 trauma) cases were analyzed. Non-traumatic etiologies included gastrointestinal bleeding, obstetrics and gynecology-derived events, visceral aneurysm, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and post-abdominal surgery. The abdomen was a common bleeding site (69%), followed by the pelvis or extra-pelvic retroperitoneum. None of the non-trauma patients had multiple bleeding sites, whereas 45% of trauma patients did (P < 0.001). No non-trauma patients required resuscitative thoracotomy compared with 28% of the trauma patients (P < 0.001). Non-trauma patients presented a lower 24-h mortality than trauma patients (19 vs. 51%, P = 0.001). The non-trauma cases demonstrated a gradual but prolonged increased mortality, whereas survival in trauma cases rapidly declined (P = 0.009) with similar hospital mortality (68 vs. 64%). Non-trauma patients who survived for 24 h had 0 ventilator-free days and 0 ICU-free days vs. a median of 19 and 12, respectively, for trauma patients (P = 0.33 and 0.39, respectively). Non-hemorrhagic death was more common in non-trauma vs. trauma patients (83 vs. 33%, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Non-traumatic hemorrhagic shock often resulted from a single bleeding site, and resulted in better 24-h survival than traumatic hemorrhage among Japanese patients who underwent REBOA. However, hospital mortality increased steadily in non-trauma patients affected by non-hemorrhagic causes after a longer period of critical care.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Emergency Medicine
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine