Background and objectives: Cardiovascular/thrombotic diseases are frequently induced by a variety of stressors. Obese patients are susceptible to thrombotic diseases associated with stress, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. We have begun to investigate the expression of a primary inhibitor of fibrinolysis, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), in association with tissue thrombosis, using restraint-stressed obese mice. Methods and results: We analyzed the expression of PAI-1 after restraint (immobilization) stress in genetically obese mice in comparison with their lean counterparts. Dramatic increases in PAI-1 antigen in plasma and in tissue extracts were observed in the obese mice exposed to restraint stress. The induction of PAI-1 mRNA by stress in the tissues was also pronounced in the stressed obese mice as compared with the lean mice, especially in the hearts and adipose tissues. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that strong signals for PAI-1 mRNA were localized in the adipocytes, cardiovascular endothelial cells, and renal glomerular cells of the stressed obese mice. Histological examination revealed that renal glomerular fibrin deposition was detected only in the obese mice after 2 h of restraint stress. Conclusions: Obesity enhances the stress-mediated PAI-1 induction in the blood and tissues. This phenomenon may be associated with the increased risk of stress-induced renal fibrin deposition in obese subjects.
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