Observational Variables for Considering a Switch from a Normal to a Dysphagia Diet among Older Adults Requiring Long-Term Care: A One-Year Multicenter Longitudinal Study

Maaya Takeda, Yutaka Watanabe, Takae Matsushita, Kenshu Taira, Kazuhito Miura, Yuki Ohara, Masanori Iwasaki, Kayoko Ito, Junko Nakajima, Yasuyuki Iwasa, Masataka Itoda, Yasuhiro Nishi, Junichi Furuya, Yoshihiko Watanabe, George Umemoto, Masako Kishima, Hirohiko Hirano, Yuji Sato, Mitsuyoshi Yoshida, Yutaka Yamazaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

This one-year multicenter longitudinal study aimed to assess whether older adult residents of long-term care facilities should switch from a normal to a dysphagia diet. Using the results of our previous cross-sectional study as baseline, older adults were subdivided into those who maintained a normal diet and those who switched to a dysphagia diet. The explanatory variables were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), Barthel Index, clinical dementia rating (CDR), and 13 simple and 5 objective oral assessments (remaining teeth, functional teeth, oral diadochokinesis, modified water swallowing test, and repetitive saliva swallowing test), which were used in binomial logistic regression analysis. Between-group comparison showed a significantly different BMI, Barthel Index, and CDR. Significant differences were also observed in simple assessments for language, drooling, tongue movement, perioral muscle function, and rinsing and in objective assessments. In multi-level analysis, switching from a normal to a dysphagia diet was significantly associated with simple assessments of tongue movement, perioral muscle function, and rinsing and with the objective assessment of the number of functional teeth. The results suggest that simple assessments can be performed regularly to screen for early signs of discrepancies between food form and eating/swallowing functions, which could lead to the provision of more appropriate food forms.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6586
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume19
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-06-2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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