Oncolytic virus-mediated manipulation of DNA damage responses

Synergy with chemotherapy in killing glioblastoma stem cells

Ryuichi Kanai, Samuel D. Rabkin, Stephen Yip, Donatella Sgubin, Cecile M. Zaupa, Yuichi Hirose, David N. Louis, Hiroaki Wakimoto, Robert L. Martuza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: Although both the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) and oncolytic viruses hold promise for treating glioblastoma, which remains uniformly lethal, the effectiveness of combining the two treatments and the mechanism of their interaction on cancer stem cells are unknown. Methods: We investigated the efficacy of combining TMZ and the oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) G47Δ in killing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), using Chou-Talalay combination index analysis, immunocytochemistry and fluorescence microscopy, and neutral comet assay. The role of treatment-induced DNA double-strand breaks, activation of DNA damage responses, and virus replication in the cytotoxic interaction between G47Δ and TMZ was examined with a panel of pharmacological inhibitors and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of DNA repair pathways. Comparisons of cell survival and virus replication were performed using a two-sided t test (unpaired). The survival of athymic mice (n = 6-8 mice per group) bearing GSC-derived glioblastoma tumors treated with the combination of G47Δ and TMZ was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and evaluated with a two-sided log-rank test. Results: The combination of G47Δ and TMZ acted synergistically in killing GSCs but not neurons, with associated robust induction of DNA damage. Pharmacological and shRNA-mediated knockdown studies suggested that activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a crucial mediator of synergy. Activated ATM relocalized to HSV DNA replication compartments where it likely enhanced oHSV replication and could not participate in repairing TMZ-induced DNA damage. Sensitivity to TMZ and synergy with G47Δ decreased with O 6 -methylguanine-DNA- methyltransferase (MGMT) expression and MSH6 knockdown. Combined G47Δ and TMZ treatment extended survival of mice bearing GSC-derived intracranial tumors, achieving long-term remission in four of eight mice (median survival = 228 days; G47Δ alone vs G47Δ + TMZ, hazard ratio of survival = 7.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.9 to 26.1, P =. 003) at TMZ doses attainable in patients. Conclusions: The combination of G47Δ and TMZ acts synergistically in killing GSCs through oHSV-mediated manipulation of DNA damage responses. This strategy is highly efficacious in representative preclinical models and warrants clinical translation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-55
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute
Volume104
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 04-01-2012

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temozolomide
Oncolytic Viruses
Glioblastoma
DNA Damage
Stem Cells
Drug Therapy
Simplexvirus
Virus Replication
Ataxia Telangiectasia
Small Interfering RNA
O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase
Pharmacology

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

Kanai, Ryuichi ; Rabkin, Samuel D. ; Yip, Stephen ; Sgubin, Donatella ; Zaupa, Cecile M. ; Hirose, Yuichi ; Louis, David N. ; Wakimoto, Hiroaki ; Martuza, Robert L. / Oncolytic virus-mediated manipulation of DNA damage responses : Synergy with chemotherapy in killing glioblastoma stem cells. In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2012 ; Vol. 104, No. 1. pp. 42-55.
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title = "Oncolytic virus-mediated manipulation of DNA damage responses: Synergy with chemotherapy in killing glioblastoma stem cells",
abstract = "Background: Although both the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) and oncolytic viruses hold promise for treating glioblastoma, which remains uniformly lethal, the effectiveness of combining the two treatments and the mechanism of their interaction on cancer stem cells are unknown. Methods: We investigated the efficacy of combining TMZ and the oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) G47Δ in killing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), using Chou-Talalay combination index analysis, immunocytochemistry and fluorescence microscopy, and neutral comet assay. The role of treatment-induced DNA double-strand breaks, activation of DNA damage responses, and virus replication in the cytotoxic interaction between G47Δ and TMZ was examined with a panel of pharmacological inhibitors and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of DNA repair pathways. Comparisons of cell survival and virus replication were performed using a two-sided t test (unpaired). The survival of athymic mice (n = 6-8 mice per group) bearing GSC-derived glioblastoma tumors treated with the combination of G47Δ and TMZ was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and evaluated with a two-sided log-rank test. Results: The combination of G47Δ and TMZ acted synergistically in killing GSCs but not neurons, with associated robust induction of DNA damage. Pharmacological and shRNA-mediated knockdown studies suggested that activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a crucial mediator of synergy. Activated ATM relocalized to HSV DNA replication compartments where it likely enhanced oHSV replication and could not participate in repairing TMZ-induced DNA damage. Sensitivity to TMZ and synergy with G47Δ decreased with O 6 -methylguanine-DNA- methyltransferase (MGMT) expression and MSH6 knockdown. Combined G47Δ and TMZ treatment extended survival of mice bearing GSC-derived intracranial tumors, achieving long-term remission in four of eight mice (median survival = 228 days; G47Δ alone vs G47Δ + TMZ, hazard ratio of survival = 7.1, 95{\%} confidence interval = 1.9 to 26.1, P =. 003) at TMZ doses attainable in patients. Conclusions: The combination of G47Δ and TMZ acts synergistically in killing GSCs through oHSV-mediated manipulation of DNA damage responses. This strategy is highly efficacious in representative preclinical models and warrants clinical translation.",
author = "Ryuichi Kanai and Rabkin, {Samuel D.} and Stephen Yip and Donatella Sgubin and Zaupa, {Cecile M.} and Yuichi Hirose and Louis, {David N.} and Hiroaki Wakimoto and Martuza, {Robert L.}",
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Oncolytic virus-mediated manipulation of DNA damage responses : Synergy with chemotherapy in killing glioblastoma stem cells. / Kanai, Ryuichi; Rabkin, Samuel D.; Yip, Stephen; Sgubin, Donatella; Zaupa, Cecile M.; Hirose, Yuichi; Louis, David N.; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Martuza, Robert L.

In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 104, No. 1, 04.01.2012, p. 42-55.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Oncolytic virus-mediated manipulation of DNA damage responses

T2 - Synergy with chemotherapy in killing glioblastoma stem cells

AU - Kanai, Ryuichi

AU - Rabkin, Samuel D.

AU - Yip, Stephen

AU - Sgubin, Donatella

AU - Zaupa, Cecile M.

AU - Hirose, Yuichi

AU - Louis, David N.

AU - Wakimoto, Hiroaki

AU - Martuza, Robert L.

PY - 2012/1/4

Y1 - 2012/1/4

N2 - Background: Although both the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) and oncolytic viruses hold promise for treating glioblastoma, which remains uniformly lethal, the effectiveness of combining the two treatments and the mechanism of their interaction on cancer stem cells are unknown. Methods: We investigated the efficacy of combining TMZ and the oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) G47Δ in killing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), using Chou-Talalay combination index analysis, immunocytochemistry and fluorescence microscopy, and neutral comet assay. The role of treatment-induced DNA double-strand breaks, activation of DNA damage responses, and virus replication in the cytotoxic interaction between G47Δ and TMZ was examined with a panel of pharmacological inhibitors and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of DNA repair pathways. Comparisons of cell survival and virus replication were performed using a two-sided t test (unpaired). The survival of athymic mice (n = 6-8 mice per group) bearing GSC-derived glioblastoma tumors treated with the combination of G47Δ and TMZ was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and evaluated with a two-sided log-rank test. Results: The combination of G47Δ and TMZ acted synergistically in killing GSCs but not neurons, with associated robust induction of DNA damage. Pharmacological and shRNA-mediated knockdown studies suggested that activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a crucial mediator of synergy. Activated ATM relocalized to HSV DNA replication compartments where it likely enhanced oHSV replication and could not participate in repairing TMZ-induced DNA damage. Sensitivity to TMZ and synergy with G47Δ decreased with O 6 -methylguanine-DNA- methyltransferase (MGMT) expression and MSH6 knockdown. Combined G47Δ and TMZ treatment extended survival of mice bearing GSC-derived intracranial tumors, achieving long-term remission in four of eight mice (median survival = 228 days; G47Δ alone vs G47Δ + TMZ, hazard ratio of survival = 7.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.9 to 26.1, P =. 003) at TMZ doses attainable in patients. Conclusions: The combination of G47Δ and TMZ acts synergistically in killing GSCs through oHSV-mediated manipulation of DNA damage responses. This strategy is highly efficacious in representative preclinical models and warrants clinical translation.

AB - Background: Although both the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) and oncolytic viruses hold promise for treating glioblastoma, which remains uniformly lethal, the effectiveness of combining the two treatments and the mechanism of their interaction on cancer stem cells are unknown. Methods: We investigated the efficacy of combining TMZ and the oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) G47Δ in killing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), using Chou-Talalay combination index analysis, immunocytochemistry and fluorescence microscopy, and neutral comet assay. The role of treatment-induced DNA double-strand breaks, activation of DNA damage responses, and virus replication in the cytotoxic interaction between G47Δ and TMZ was examined with a panel of pharmacological inhibitors and short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of DNA repair pathways. Comparisons of cell survival and virus replication were performed using a two-sided t test (unpaired). The survival of athymic mice (n = 6-8 mice per group) bearing GSC-derived glioblastoma tumors treated with the combination of G47Δ and TMZ was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and evaluated with a two-sided log-rank test. Results: The combination of G47Δ and TMZ acted synergistically in killing GSCs but not neurons, with associated robust induction of DNA damage. Pharmacological and shRNA-mediated knockdown studies suggested that activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a crucial mediator of synergy. Activated ATM relocalized to HSV DNA replication compartments where it likely enhanced oHSV replication and could not participate in repairing TMZ-induced DNA damage. Sensitivity to TMZ and synergy with G47Δ decreased with O 6 -methylguanine-DNA- methyltransferase (MGMT) expression and MSH6 knockdown. Combined G47Δ and TMZ treatment extended survival of mice bearing GSC-derived intracranial tumors, achieving long-term remission in four of eight mice (median survival = 228 days; G47Δ alone vs G47Δ + TMZ, hazard ratio of survival = 7.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.9 to 26.1, P =. 003) at TMZ doses attainable in patients. Conclusions: The combination of G47Δ and TMZ acts synergistically in killing GSCs through oHSV-mediated manipulation of DNA damage responses. This strategy is highly efficacious in representative preclinical models and warrants clinical translation.

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