ORIGIN: Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn

Jan Willem den Herder, Luigi Piro, Takaya Ohashi, Chryssa Kouveliotou, Dieter H. Hartmann, Jelle S. Kaastra, L. Amati, M. I. Andersen, M. Arnaud, J. L. Attéia, S. Bandler, M. Barbera, X. Barcons, S. Barthelmy, S. Basa, S. Basso, M. Boer, E. Branchini, G. Branduardi-Raymont, S. BorganiA. Boyarsky, G. Brunetti, C. Budtz-Jorgensen, D. Burrows, N. Butler, S. Campana, E. Caroli, M. Ceballos, F. Christensen, E. Churazov, A. Comastri, L. Colasanti, R. Cole, R. Content, A. Corsi, E. Costantini, P. Conconi, G. Cusumano, J. de Plaa, A. De Rosa, M. Del Santo, S. Di Cosimo, M. De Pasquale, R. Doriese, S. Ettori, P. Evans, Y. Ezoe, L. Ferrari, H. Finger, T. Figueroa-Feliciano, P. Friedrich, R. Fujimoto, Akihiro Furuzawa, J. Fynbo, F. Gatti, M. Galeazzi, N. Gehrels, B. Gendre, G. Ghirlanda, G. Ghisellini, M. Gilfanov, P. Giommi, M. Girardi, J. Grindlay, M. Cocchi, O. Godet, M. Guedel, F. Haardt, R. den Hartog, I. Hepburn, W. Hermsen, J. Hjorth, H. Hoekstra, A. Holland, A. Hornstrup, A. van der Horst, A. Hoshino, J. in't Zand, K. Irwin, Y. Ishisaki, P. Jonker, T. Kitayama, H. Kawahara, N. Kawai, R. Kelley, C. Kilbourne, P. de Korte, A. Kusenko, I. Kuvvetli, M. Labanti, C. Macculi, R. Maiolino, M. Mas Hesse, K. Matsushita, P. Mazzotta, D. McCammon, M. Méndez, R. Mignani, T. Mineo, K. Mitsuda, R. Mushotzky, S. Molendi, L. Moscardini, L. Natalucci, F. Nicastro, P. O'Brien, J. Osborne, F. Paerels, M. Page, S. Paltani, K. Pedersen, E. Perinati, T. Ponman, E. Pointecouteau, P. Predehl, S. Porter, A. Rasmussen, G. Rauw, H. Röttgering, M. Roncarelli, P. Rosati, E. Quadrini, O. Ruchayskiy, R. Salvaterra, S. Sasaki, K. Sato, S. Savaglio, J. Schaye, S. Sciortino, M. Shaposhnikov, R. Sharples, K. Shinozaki, D. Spiga, R. Sunyaev, Y. Suto, Y. Takei, N. Tanvir, M. Tashiro, T. Tamura, Y. Tawara, E. Troja, M. Tsujimoto, T. Tsuru, P. Ubertini, J. Ullom, E. Ursino, F. Verbunt, F. van de Voort, M. Viel, S. Wachter, D. Watson, M. Weisskopf, N. Werner, N. White, R. Willingale, R. Wijers, N. Yamasaki, K. Yoshikawa, S. Zane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts (z ~0. 2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the same instrument, we can also study the so far only partially detected baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The less dense part of the WHIM will be studied using absorption lines at low redshift in the spectra for GRBs. The ORIGIN mission includes a Transient Event Detector (coded mask with a sensitivity of 0. 4 photon/cm2/s in 10 s in the 5-150 keV band) to identify and localize 2000 GRBs over a five year mission, of which ~65 GRBs have a redshift >7. The Cryogenic Imaging Spectrometer, with a spectral resolution of 2. 5 eV, a field of view of 30 arcmin and large effective area below 1 keV has the sensitivity to study clusters up to a significant fraction of the virial radius and to map the denser parts of the WHIM (factor 30 higher than achievable with current instruments). The payload is complemented by a Burst InfraRed Telescope to enable onboard red-shift determination of GRBs (hence securing proper follow up of high-z bursts) and also probes the mildly ionized state of the gas. Fast repointing is achieved by a dedicated Controlled Momentum Gyro and a low background is achieved by the selected low Earth orbit.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)519-549
Number of pages31
JournalExperimental Astronomy
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01-10-2012

Fingerprint

gamma ray bursts
spectral resolution
intergalactic media
metal
metals
field of view
red shift
bursts
universe
galaxies
infrared telescopes
sensitivity
high resolution
imaging spectrometers
low Earth orbits
chemical property
European Space Agency
momentum
payloads
spectrometer

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

den Herder, J. W., Piro, L., Ohashi, T., Kouveliotou, C., Hartmann, D. H., Kaastra, J. S., ... Zane, S. (2012). ORIGIN: Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn. Experimental Astronomy, 34(2), 519-549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10686-011-9224-7
den Herder, Jan Willem ; Piro, Luigi ; Ohashi, Takaya ; Kouveliotou, Chryssa ; Hartmann, Dieter H. ; Kaastra, Jelle S. ; Amati, L. ; Andersen, M. I. ; Arnaud, M. ; Attéia, J. L. ; Bandler, S. ; Barbera, M. ; Barcons, X. ; Barthelmy, S. ; Basa, S. ; Basso, S. ; Boer, M. ; Branchini, E. ; Branduardi-Raymont, G. ; Borgani, S. ; Boyarsky, A. ; Brunetti, G. ; Budtz-Jorgensen, C. ; Burrows, D. ; Butler, N. ; Campana, S. ; Caroli, E. ; Ceballos, M. ; Christensen, F. ; Churazov, E. ; Comastri, A. ; Colasanti, L. ; Cole, R. ; Content, R. ; Corsi, A. ; Costantini, E. ; Conconi, P. ; Cusumano, G. ; de Plaa, J. ; De Rosa, A. ; Del Santo, M. ; Di Cosimo, S. ; De Pasquale, M. ; Doriese, R. ; Ettori, S. ; Evans, P. ; Ezoe, Y. ; Ferrari, L. ; Finger, H. ; Figueroa-Feliciano, T. ; Friedrich, P. ; Fujimoto, R. ; Furuzawa, Akihiro ; Fynbo, J. ; Gatti, F. ; Galeazzi, M. ; Gehrels, N. ; Gendre, B. ; Ghirlanda, G. ; Ghisellini, G. ; Gilfanov, M. ; Giommi, P. ; Girardi, M. ; Grindlay, J. ; Cocchi, M. ; Godet, O. ; Guedel, M. ; Haardt, F. ; den Hartog, R. ; Hepburn, I. ; Hermsen, W. ; Hjorth, J. ; Hoekstra, H. ; Holland, A. ; Hornstrup, A. ; van der Horst, A. ; Hoshino, A. ; in't Zand, J. ; Irwin, K. ; Ishisaki, Y. ; Jonker, P. ; Kitayama, T. ; Kawahara, H. ; Kawai, N. ; Kelley, R. ; Kilbourne, C. ; de Korte, P. ; Kusenko, A. ; Kuvvetli, I. ; Labanti, M. ; Macculi, C. ; Maiolino, R. ; Hesse, M. Mas ; Matsushita, K. ; Mazzotta, P. ; McCammon, D. ; Méndez, M. ; Mignani, R. ; Mineo, T. ; Mitsuda, K. ; Mushotzky, R. ; Molendi, S. ; Moscardini, L. ; Natalucci, L. ; Nicastro, F. ; O'Brien, P. ; Osborne, J. ; Paerels, F. ; Page, M. ; Paltani, S. ; Pedersen, K. ; Perinati, E. ; Ponman, T. ; Pointecouteau, E. ; Predehl, P. ; Porter, S. ; Rasmussen, A. ; Rauw, G. ; Röttgering, H. ; Roncarelli, M. ; Rosati, P. ; Quadrini, E. ; Ruchayskiy, O. ; Salvaterra, R. ; Sasaki, S. ; Sato, K. ; Savaglio, S. ; Schaye, J. ; Sciortino, S. ; Shaposhnikov, M. ; Sharples, R. ; Shinozaki, K. ; Spiga, D. ; Sunyaev, R. ; Suto, Y. ; Takei, Y. ; Tanvir, N. ; Tashiro, M. ; Tamura, T. ; Tawara, Y. ; Troja, E. ; Tsujimoto, M. ; Tsuru, T. ; Ubertini, P. ; Ullom, J. ; Ursino, E. ; Verbunt, F. ; van de Voort, F. ; Viel, M. ; Wachter, S. ; Watson, D. ; Weisskopf, M. ; Werner, N. ; White, N. ; Willingale, R. ; Wijers, R. ; Yamasaki, N. ; Yoshikawa, K. ; Zane, S. / ORIGIN : Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn. In: Experimental Astronomy. 2012 ; Vol. 34, No. 2. pp. 519-549.
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title = "ORIGIN: Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn",
abstract = "ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts (z ~0. 2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the same instrument, we can also study the so far only partially detected baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The less dense part of the WHIM will be studied using absorption lines at low redshift in the spectra for GRBs. The ORIGIN mission includes a Transient Event Detector (coded mask with a sensitivity of 0. 4 photon/cm2/s in 10 s in the 5-150 keV band) to identify and localize 2000 GRBs over a five year mission, of which ~65 GRBs have a redshift >7. The Cryogenic Imaging Spectrometer, with a spectral resolution of 2. 5 eV, a field of view of 30 arcmin and large effective area below 1 keV has the sensitivity to study clusters up to a significant fraction of the virial radius and to map the denser parts of the WHIM (factor 30 higher than achievable with current instruments). The payload is complemented by a Burst InfraRed Telescope to enable onboard red-shift determination of GRBs (hence securing proper follow up of high-z bursts) and also probes the mildly ionized state of the gas. Fast repointing is achieved by a dedicated Controlled Momentum Gyro and a low background is achieved by the selected low Earth orbit.",
author = "{den Herder}, {Jan Willem} and Luigi Piro and Takaya Ohashi and Chryssa Kouveliotou and Hartmann, {Dieter H.} and Kaastra, {Jelle S.} and L. Amati and Andersen, {M. I.} and M. Arnaud and Att{\'e}ia, {J. L.} and S. Bandler and M. Barbera and X. Barcons and S. Barthelmy and S. Basa and S. Basso and M. Boer and E. Branchini and G. Branduardi-Raymont and S. Borgani and A. Boyarsky and G. Brunetti and C. Budtz-Jorgensen and D. Burrows and N. Butler and S. Campana and E. Caroli and M. Ceballos and F. Christensen and E. Churazov and A. Comastri and L. Colasanti and R. Cole and R. Content and A. Corsi and E. Costantini and P. Conconi and G. Cusumano and {de Plaa}, J. and {De Rosa}, A. and {Del Santo}, M. and {Di Cosimo}, S. and {De Pasquale}, M. and R. Doriese and S. Ettori and P. Evans and Y. Ezoe and L. Ferrari and H. Finger and T. Figueroa-Feliciano and P. Friedrich and R. Fujimoto and Akihiro Furuzawa and J. Fynbo and F. Gatti and M. Galeazzi and N. Gehrels and B. Gendre and G. Ghirlanda and G. Ghisellini and M. Gilfanov and P. Giommi and M. Girardi and J. Grindlay and M. Cocchi and O. Godet and M. Guedel and F. Haardt and {den Hartog}, R. and I. Hepburn and W. Hermsen and J. Hjorth and H. Hoekstra and A. Holland and A. Hornstrup and {van der Horst}, A. and A. Hoshino and {in't Zand}, J. and K. Irwin and Y. Ishisaki and P. Jonker and T. Kitayama and H. Kawahara and N. Kawai and R. Kelley and C. Kilbourne and {de Korte}, P. and A. Kusenko and I. Kuvvetli and M. Labanti and C. Macculi and R. Maiolino and Hesse, {M. Mas} and K. Matsushita and P. Mazzotta and D. McCammon and M. M{\'e}ndez and R. Mignani and T. Mineo and K. Mitsuda and R. Mushotzky and S. Molendi and L. Moscardini and L. Natalucci and F. Nicastro and P. O'Brien and J. Osborne and F. Paerels and M. Page and S. Paltani and K. Pedersen and E. Perinati and T. Ponman and E. Pointecouteau and P. Predehl and S. Porter and A. Rasmussen and G. Rauw and H. R{\"o}ttgering and M. Roncarelli and P. Rosati and E. Quadrini and O. Ruchayskiy and R. Salvaterra and S. Sasaki and K. Sato and S. Savaglio and J. Schaye and S. Sciortino and M. Shaposhnikov and R. Sharples and K. Shinozaki and D. Spiga and R. Sunyaev and Y. Suto and Y. Takei and N. Tanvir and M. Tashiro and T. Tamura and Y. Tawara and E. Troja and M. Tsujimoto and T. Tsuru and P. Ubertini and J. Ullom and E. Ursino and F. Verbunt and {van de Voort}, F. and M. Viel and S. Wachter and D. Watson and M. Weisskopf and N. Werner and N. White and R. Willingale and R. Wijers and N. Yamasaki and K. Yoshikawa and S. Zane",
year = "2012",
month = "10",
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doi = "10.1007/s10686-011-9224-7",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "519--549",
journal = "Experimental Astronomy",
issn = "0922-6435",
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den Herder, JW, Piro, L, Ohashi, T, Kouveliotou, C, Hartmann, DH, Kaastra, JS, Amati, L, Andersen, MI, Arnaud, M, Attéia, JL, Bandler, S, Barbera, M, Barcons, X, Barthelmy, S, Basa, S, Basso, S, Boer, M, Branchini, E, Branduardi-Raymont, G, Borgani, S, Boyarsky, A, Brunetti, G, Budtz-Jorgensen, C, Burrows, D, Butler, N, Campana, S, Caroli, E, Ceballos, M, Christensen, F, Churazov, E, Comastri, A, Colasanti, L, Cole, R, Content, R, Corsi, A, Costantini, E, Conconi, P, Cusumano, G, de Plaa, J, De Rosa, A, Del Santo, M, Di Cosimo, S, De Pasquale, M, Doriese, R, Ettori, S, Evans, P, Ezoe, Y, Ferrari, L, Finger, H, Figueroa-Feliciano, T, Friedrich, P, Fujimoto, R, Furuzawa, A, Fynbo, J, Gatti, F, Galeazzi, M, Gehrels, N, Gendre, B, Ghirlanda, G, Ghisellini, G, Gilfanov, M, Giommi, P, Girardi, M, Grindlay, J, Cocchi, M, Godet, O, Guedel, M, Haardt, F, den Hartog, R, Hepburn, I, Hermsen, W, Hjorth, J, Hoekstra, H, Holland, A, Hornstrup, A, van der Horst, A, Hoshino, A, in't Zand, J, Irwin, K, Ishisaki, Y, Jonker, P, Kitayama, T, Kawahara, H, Kawai, N, Kelley, R, Kilbourne, C, de Korte, P, Kusenko, A, Kuvvetli, I, Labanti, M, Macculi, C, Maiolino, R, Hesse, MM, Matsushita, K, Mazzotta, P, McCammon, D, Méndez, M, Mignani, R, Mineo, T, Mitsuda, K, Mushotzky, R, Molendi, S, Moscardini, L, Natalucci, L, Nicastro, F, O'Brien, P, Osborne, J, Paerels, F, Page, M, Paltani, S, Pedersen, K, Perinati, E, Ponman, T, Pointecouteau, E, Predehl, P, Porter, S, Rasmussen, A, Rauw, G, Röttgering, H, Roncarelli, M, Rosati, P, Quadrini, E, Ruchayskiy, O, Salvaterra, R, Sasaki, S, Sato, K, Savaglio, S, Schaye, J, Sciortino, S, Shaposhnikov, M, Sharples, R, Shinozaki, K, Spiga, D, Sunyaev, R, Suto, Y, Takei, Y, Tanvir, N, Tashiro, M, Tamura, T, Tawara, Y, Troja, E, Tsujimoto, M, Tsuru, T, Ubertini, P, Ullom, J, Ursino, E, Verbunt, F, van de Voort, F, Viel, M, Wachter, S, Watson, D, Weisskopf, M, Werner, N, White, N, Willingale, R, Wijers, R, Yamasaki, N, Yoshikawa, K & Zane, S 2012, 'ORIGIN: Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn', Experimental Astronomy, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 519-549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10686-011-9224-7

ORIGIN : Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn. / den Herder, Jan Willem; Piro, Luigi; Ohashi, Takaya; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Amati, L.; Andersen, M. I.; Arnaud, M.; Attéia, J. L.; Bandler, S.; Barbera, M.; Barcons, X.; Barthelmy, S.; Basa, S.; Basso, S.; Boer, M.; Branchini, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Borgani, S.; Boyarsky, A.; Brunetti, G.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Burrows, D.; Butler, N.; Campana, S.; Caroli, E.; Ceballos, M.; Christensen, F.; Churazov, E.; Comastri, A.; Colasanti, L.; Cole, R.; Content, R.; Corsi, A.; Costantini, E.; Conconi, P.; Cusumano, G.; de Plaa, J.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; De Pasquale, M.; Doriese, R.; Ettori, S.; Evans, P.; Ezoe, Y.; Ferrari, L.; Finger, H.; Figueroa-Feliciano, T.; Friedrich, P.; Fujimoto, R.; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Fynbo, J.; Gatti, F.; Galeazzi, M.; Gehrels, N.; Gendre, B.; Ghirlanda, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Girardi, M.; Grindlay, J.; Cocchi, M.; Godet, O.; Guedel, M.; Haardt, F.; den Hartog, R.; Hepburn, I.; Hermsen, W.; Hjorth, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holland, A.; Hornstrup, A.; van der Horst, A.; Hoshino, A.; in't Zand, J.; Irwin, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Jonker, P.; Kitayama, T.; Kawahara, H.; Kawai, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; de Korte, P.; Kusenko, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; Labanti, M.; Macculi, C.; Maiolino, R.; Hesse, M. Mas; Matsushita, K.; Mazzotta, P.; McCammon, D.; Méndez, M.; Mignani, R.; Mineo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Mushotzky, R.; Molendi, S.; Moscardini, L.; Natalucci, L.; Nicastro, F.; O'Brien, P.; Osborne, J.; Paerels, F.; Page, M.; Paltani, S.; Pedersen, K.; Perinati, E.; Ponman, T.; Pointecouteau, E.; Predehl, P.; Porter, S.; Rasmussen, A.; Rauw, G.; Röttgering, H.; Roncarelli, M.; Rosati, P.; Quadrini, E.; Ruchayskiy, O.; Salvaterra, R.; Sasaki, S.; Sato, K.; Savaglio, S.; Schaye, J.; Sciortino, S.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Sharples, R.; Shinozaki, K.; Spiga, D.; Sunyaev, R.; Suto, Y.; Takei, Y.; Tanvir, N.; Tashiro, M.; Tamura, T.; Tawara, Y.; Troja, E.; Tsujimoto, M.; Tsuru, T.; Ubertini, P.; Ullom, J.; Ursino, E.; Verbunt, F.; van de Voort, F.; Viel, M.; Wachter, S.; Watson, D.; Weisskopf, M.; Werner, N.; White, N.; Willingale, R.; Wijers, R.; Yamasaki, N.; Yoshikawa, K.; Zane, S.

In: Experimental Astronomy, Vol. 34, No. 2, 01.10.2012, p. 519-549.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - ORIGIN

T2 - Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn

AU - den Herder, Jan Willem

AU - Piro, Luigi

AU - Ohashi, Takaya

AU - Kouveliotou, Chryssa

AU - Hartmann, Dieter H.

AU - Kaastra, Jelle S.

AU - Amati, L.

AU - Andersen, M. I.

AU - Arnaud, M.

AU - Attéia, J. L.

AU - Bandler, S.

AU - Barbera, M.

AU - Barcons, X.

AU - Barthelmy, S.

AU - Basa, S.

AU - Basso, S.

AU - Boer, M.

AU - Branchini, E.

AU - Branduardi-Raymont, G.

AU - Borgani, S.

AU - Boyarsky, A.

AU - Brunetti, G.

AU - Budtz-Jorgensen, C.

AU - Burrows, D.

AU - Butler, N.

AU - Campana, S.

AU - Caroli, E.

AU - Ceballos, M.

AU - Christensen, F.

AU - Churazov, E.

AU - Comastri, A.

AU - Colasanti, L.

AU - Cole, R.

AU - Content, R.

AU - Corsi, A.

AU - Costantini, E.

AU - Conconi, P.

AU - Cusumano, G.

AU - de Plaa, J.

AU - De Rosa, A.

AU - Del Santo, M.

AU - Di Cosimo, S.

AU - De Pasquale, M.

AU - Doriese, R.

AU - Ettori, S.

AU - Evans, P.

AU - Ezoe, Y.

AU - Ferrari, L.

AU - Finger, H.

AU - Figueroa-Feliciano, T.

AU - Friedrich, P.

AU - Fujimoto, R.

AU - Furuzawa, Akihiro

AU - Fynbo, J.

AU - Gatti, F.

AU - Galeazzi, M.

AU - Gehrels, N.

AU - Gendre, B.

AU - Ghirlanda, G.

AU - Ghisellini, G.

AU - Gilfanov, M.

AU - Giommi, P.

AU - Girardi, M.

AU - Grindlay, J.

AU - Cocchi, M.

AU - Godet, O.

AU - Guedel, M.

AU - Haardt, F.

AU - den Hartog, R.

AU - Hepburn, I.

AU - Hermsen, W.

AU - Hjorth, J.

AU - Hoekstra, H.

AU - Holland, A.

AU - Hornstrup, A.

AU - van der Horst, A.

AU - Hoshino, A.

AU - in't Zand, J.

AU - Irwin, K.

AU - Ishisaki, Y.

AU - Jonker, P.

AU - Kitayama, T.

AU - Kawahara, H.

AU - Kawai, N.

AU - Kelley, R.

AU - Kilbourne, C.

AU - de Korte, P.

AU - Kusenko, A.

AU - Kuvvetli, I.

AU - Labanti, M.

AU - Macculi, C.

AU - Maiolino, R.

AU - Hesse, M. Mas

AU - Matsushita, K.

AU - Mazzotta, P.

AU - McCammon, D.

AU - Méndez, M.

AU - Mignani, R.

AU - Mineo, T.

AU - Mitsuda, K.

AU - Mushotzky, R.

AU - Molendi, S.

AU - Moscardini, L.

AU - Natalucci, L.

AU - Nicastro, F.

AU - O'Brien, P.

AU - Osborne, J.

AU - Paerels, F.

AU - Page, M.

AU - Paltani, S.

AU - Pedersen, K.

AU - Perinati, E.

AU - Ponman, T.

AU - Pointecouteau, E.

AU - Predehl, P.

AU - Porter, S.

AU - Rasmussen, A.

AU - Rauw, G.

AU - Röttgering, H.

AU - Roncarelli, M.

AU - Rosati, P.

AU - Quadrini, E.

AU - Ruchayskiy, O.

AU - Salvaterra, R.

AU - Sasaki, S.

AU - Sato, K.

AU - Savaglio, S.

AU - Schaye, J.

AU - Sciortino, S.

AU - Shaposhnikov, M.

AU - Sharples, R.

AU - Shinozaki, K.

AU - Spiga, D.

AU - Sunyaev, R.

AU - Suto, Y.

AU - Takei, Y.

AU - Tanvir, N.

AU - Tashiro, M.

AU - Tamura, T.

AU - Tawara, Y.

AU - Troja, E.

AU - Tsujimoto, M.

AU - Tsuru, T.

AU - Ubertini, P.

AU - Ullom, J.

AU - Ursino, E.

AU - Verbunt, F.

AU - van de Voort, F.

AU - Viel, M.

AU - Wachter, S.

AU - Watson, D.

AU - Weisskopf, M.

AU - Werner, N.

AU - White, N.

AU - Willingale, R.

AU - Wijers, R.

AU - Yamasaki, N.

AU - Yoshikawa, K.

AU - Zane, S.

PY - 2012/10/1

Y1 - 2012/10/1

N2 - ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts (z ~0. 2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the same instrument, we can also study the so far only partially detected baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The less dense part of the WHIM will be studied using absorption lines at low redshift in the spectra for GRBs. The ORIGIN mission includes a Transient Event Detector (coded mask with a sensitivity of 0. 4 photon/cm2/s in 10 s in the 5-150 keV band) to identify and localize 2000 GRBs over a five year mission, of which ~65 GRBs have a redshift >7. The Cryogenic Imaging Spectrometer, with a spectral resolution of 2. 5 eV, a field of view of 30 arcmin and large effective area below 1 keV has the sensitivity to study clusters up to a significant fraction of the virial radius and to map the denser parts of the WHIM (factor 30 higher than achievable with current instruments). The payload is complemented by a Burst InfraRed Telescope to enable onboard red-shift determination of GRBs (hence securing proper follow up of high-z bursts) and also probes the mildly ionized state of the gas. Fast repointing is achieved by a dedicated Controlled Momentum Gyro and a low background is achieved by the selected low Earth orbit.

AB - ORIGIN is a proposal for the M3 mission call of ESA aimed at the study of metal creation from the epoch of cosmic dawn. Using high-spectral resolution in the soft X-ray band, ORIGIN will be able to identify the physical conditions of all abundant elements between C and Ni to red-shifts of z = 10, and beyond. The mission will answer questions such as: When were the first metals created? How does the cosmic metal content evolve? Where do most of the metals reside in the Universe? What is the role of metals in structure formation and evolution? To reach out to the early Universe ORIGIN will use Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) to study their local environments in their host galaxies. This requires the capability to slew the satellite in less than a minute to the GRB location. By studying the chemical composition and properties of clusters of galaxies we can extend the range of exploration to lower redshifts (z ~0. 2). For this task we need a high-resolution spectral imaging instrument with a large field of view. Using the same instrument, we can also study the so far only partially detected baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The less dense part of the WHIM will be studied using absorption lines at low redshift in the spectra for GRBs. The ORIGIN mission includes a Transient Event Detector (coded mask with a sensitivity of 0. 4 photon/cm2/s in 10 s in the 5-150 keV band) to identify and localize 2000 GRBs over a five year mission, of which ~65 GRBs have a redshift >7. The Cryogenic Imaging Spectrometer, with a spectral resolution of 2. 5 eV, a field of view of 30 arcmin and large effective area below 1 keV has the sensitivity to study clusters up to a significant fraction of the virial radius and to map the denser parts of the WHIM (factor 30 higher than achievable with current instruments). The payload is complemented by a Burst InfraRed Telescope to enable onboard red-shift determination of GRBs (hence securing proper follow up of high-z bursts) and also probes the mildly ionized state of the gas. Fast repointing is achieved by a dedicated Controlled Momentum Gyro and a low background is achieved by the selected low Earth orbit.

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U2 - 10.1007/s10686-011-9224-7

DO - 10.1007/s10686-011-9224-7

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84866920786

VL - 34

SP - 519

EP - 549

JO - Experimental Astronomy

JF - Experimental Astronomy

SN - 0922-6435

IS - 2

ER -

den Herder JW, Piro L, Ohashi T, Kouveliotou C, Hartmann DH, Kaastra JS et al. ORIGIN: Metal creation and evolution from the cosmic dawn. Experimental Astronomy. 2012 Oct 1;34(2):519-549. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10686-011-9224-7